What is Endometriosis?Endometriosis is a chronic and usually painful condition where the endometrium (uterus lining) escapes the uterus, and adheres to the surroundings, forming adhesions. These adhesions can thicken and bleed as they would in the uterus. They can form on the fallopian tubes, ovaries, other organs, pelvic lining, and can sometimes spread outside the pelvic area.
It is fairly common, affecting some 5 million women in North America alone, most diagnosed their 20 to 35 age group.
SymptomsPainful periods, pelvic pain, constipation, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, bloating, cramping and/or excessive bleeding during menstruation, sometimes for days before and after a period, sometimes even between periods, and sometimes during ovulation, intercourse, urination or bowel movements.
Pain can sometimes occur in the lower abdomen and/or the lower back, occasionally also causing sciatica (shooting or burning nerve pain in the legs).
It is also associated with infertility - see below.
Research and Risk FactorsExcess body fat is linked to an increase in estrogen. Estrogen is mainly produced in the ovaries, but also in every fat cell in the body. Overweight or obese women have a much higher risk of infertility, edometriosis, diabetes, blood pressure, cardiovascular events, kidney disease, and cancer. These are all diseases that were almost non-existant a hundred years ago, but now becoming rampant, all more than likely caused by inflammation, which itself is caused by processed foods and toxins in the diet, water and the environment.
Recent research at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, shows that those with endometriosis may have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, especially in women under 40. 120,000 women were tracked for 20 years, and almost 12,000 (or 10%) were diagnosed with endometriosis. Heart disease rate for all patients under 40 was 21 per 100,000 women, but for the group with endometriosis, heart disease tripled to 65 per 100,000 women.
Endometriosis patients had a 52% higher risk of heart attack, 91% higher risk of angina (chest pain related to heart disease), and 35% higher risk of requiring a stent surgically placed to clear blocked arteries. A Brazilian study showed that a hallmark of endometriosis is systemic inflammation, which is a factor in heart disease development. However, it is not clear if one condition develops first, increasing the risk of the other disease, or if inflammation starts first, leading to the development of both endometriosis and cardiovascular disease. LeanMachine strongly believes that scrapping junk food and eating real, natural, unprocessed food, is the first step in avoiding inflammation and all of the "modern" diseases that follow.
Reproductive disorderWomen with endometriosis can have reproductive problems as well as issues during and after pregnancy. The adhesions formed can trap the egg, preventing the normal passage. These women are three times more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy, where a fertilized egg implants itself outside of the uterine wall, and develops in that environment, which is unsustainable. It is vital that ectopic pregnancy is diagnosed and treated early to avoid physical damage to the fallopian tubes. Any subsequent pregnancy requires close monitoring, as the risk of another ectopic pregnancy is higher.
There is also a higher risk of miscarriage, pre-term births, problems relating to the successful implantation and development of the placenta, and hemorrhaging before or after birth, requiring closer monitoring throughout the pregnancy.
Women with endometriosis and these risks should be under the care of a Gynecologist from start to finish of the pregnancy.
Being overweight is also an important risk factor for reproduction.
Traditional TreatmentThere is no "medical" cure for endometriosis.
Doctors may recommend surgery to remove uterine growths that have migrated to other parts of the pelvic region (and sometimes beyond). Although normally performed laparoscopically (through small incisions), still a major procedure requiring anesthesia, with risks such as infection, bleeding, scar tissue and organ damage. Surgery may relieve some endometriosis symptoms, but does not address the cause, so recurrence and further surgery is likely.
Doctors will also offer pain relief, with the first option invariably Paracetamol (Panadol) in Australia, called Acetimophen (Tylenol) in the USA. This is a dangerous practice. Not only does Paracetamol damage the liver, even at the recommended dose, but an enzyme in the body works with Paracetamol to destroy the body's reserves of L-Glutathione, which is one of the body's most powerful agents to fight inflammation and disease.
Natural TreatmentThere is no natural cure either, but medical examination should be the first step to rule out other possibilities.
Once diagnosed, usually after an ultrasound examination, there are things which can help reduce symptoms, which will also reduce risk of cardiovascular disease:
- Reduce excess weight
- Exercise more
- Eat only healthy, natural food
- Avoid environmental estrogens - see below
- Remove BPA and other toxins from the environment
- Avoid Canola oil, margarine and other bad fats
- Avoid trans fats (hydrogenated vegetable oil - most things fried in canola oil)
- Consume goot fats such as coconut oil
- Avoid sugar, replace with Xylitol or Erythritol
- Avoid refined grains - bread, pasta, cakes, biscuits
- Avoid MSG (in nearly all processed foods)
Estrogen Dominance (not just Women)Exposure to fake estrogen chemicals is a significant factor in endometriosis as well as cancers, fibrocystic breast disease and many other “modern” diseases which were almost non-exsistent a hundred years ago. Fake estrogens also cause food cravings, bloating, weight gain, fatigue, hair loss, mood swings, depression, migraine headaches, poor libido, and menstrual issues such as cramps, short cycles, heavy bleeding and fibroids.
Fake estrogens are found in herbicides, pesticides, and petrochemicals and include dioxins, BPA (bisphenol A), and PCB’s (polychlorinated biphenyl’s), and are used in cosmetics, glue, plastics, upholstery, carpets, and thousands more products.
Food containers should always be glass where possible. BPA-free plastic sounds good, but these containers usually have BPS instead. BPS is not absorbed by the body as readily as BPA, but once absorbed, it is much harder for the body to eliminate, so is capable of building up to even higher concentrations.
Excess estrogensEstrogens come in over 15 forms naturally created in a woman’s body, include estrone, estradiol, and estriol, and we also have metabolites of estrogen including 16-alpha-hydroxyestrone which can aggravate endometriosis as well as many types of cancer, especially breast cancers and endometrial cancers, while other estrogens such as the 2-hydroxyestrone metabolites actually prevent cancers and may improve endometriosis.
One supplement known to help this estrogen ratio is Calcium D-Glucarate, available from LeanMachine. This helps the body excrete cancer-causing 16-alpha-hydroxyestrones and other toxins, while retaining and promoting the cancer-preventing 2-hydroxy-estrones.
Aromatase InhibitorsAromatase is an enzyme required to make estrogen, part of a complex manufacturing process in the body where hormones are built from other hormones in a long conversion series. Aromatase converts androgens to estrogen, and exists at high levels in breast cancer tissue compared to healthy tissue. Fat Cells contain the aromatase enzyme, so we should strive to reduce fat cells. The leaner we become, the less aromatase we have to deal with, and the less our risk of endometriosis, cancers and other diseases.
Insulin promotes weight gain, fat accumulation, and the aromatase enzyme, and the best thing we can do to prevent excess insulin is to eliminate all sugar, all refined carbohydrate, and all MSG (monosodium glucomate) from the diet.
There are prescription (synthetic) aromatase inhibitors, which bring their own side-effects (like impotency for men) but we can also reduce aromatase naturally, with chrysin, flavonoids, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, resveratrol, oleuropein and linoleic acid <(CLA), all beneficial for breast and other cancers as well as other hormone-sensitive conditions. Generally, colourful foods are great, so "eating the rainbow" is a healthy decision.
Foods containing natural aramatase inhibitors are:
Flavones (plant chemicals which can inhibit aromatase), like celery, parsley, fenugreek.
Cruciferous vegetables: Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, all contain indoles, which improve estrogen metabolism and reduce cancer risk. DIM (diindolylmethane) is derived in the body from indoles. DIM supplements can also help, available from LeanMachine. Just one DIM tablet a day gives us the same cancer-fighting benefit as a kilogram of cabbage, so this is one of LeanMachine's preferred supplements. It's not that I don't like cabbage – I just think I would have trouble eating a kilogram every day...
PlasticsPlastics usually contain many chemicals, usually derived from petro-chemicals. Many plastic containers have a number on them signifying some of the main ingredients:
- #1 is PET (or sometimes PETE, actually polyethylene terephthalate)
PET is mostly used for water and other drink bottles, and containers for TV dinners and many other food items. PET uses antimony (a toxic metal) in manufacturing, which leaches into food, especially when storing food for a long time, exposing to sunlight, heating to high temperatures such as a microwave, which causes much greater leaching. The pH (acidity level) of the contents also affects the leaching. Microwaved TV dinners leach 100 times more antimony and other chemicals. Antimony in the body can cause pneumoconiosis, gastrointestinal problems, antimony spots on skin, respiratory irritation, depression, dizziness, headaches, vomiting, kidney or liver damage, and Adams-Stokes syndrome. Antimony trioxide is believed to be carcinogenic (causes cancer).
Brominated compounds can leach into PET containers, displacing iodine, causing paranoia from depression of the CNS (Central Nervous System). PET is considered safe by Government agencies, but it is NOT safe
- #2 is HDPE (high-density polyethylene)
HDPE is used in shampoo bottles, food box liners, grocery bags and many food containers. Shown to release estrogenic chemicals, but still considered a low-toxin plastic. One study showed that 95% of every plastic product tested positive for estrogenic activity, meaning they disrupt hormones and change cell development, so children have even higher risk. PET is NOT safe
- #3 is PVC (polyvinyl chloride)
Used in bottles, wrappers, shrink wrap, sandwich baggies, plastic toys, lunch boxes, table cloths, blister packs for medications, shoes, jackets, furniture, vinyl flooring, water pipes. Contains lead and phthalates. Phthalates cause males to become more female in humans, animals, fish, etc. by disruption of the endocrine system, causing testicular cancer, allergies, asthma, autism, genital deformation, low sperm counts and infertility. Possibly the worst health and environmental offender, but still considered safe by Government Health Agencies. It is NOT safe!
- #4 is LDPE (low-density polyethylene)
Used in food bags, squeezable bottles, coated paper milk cartons, beverage cups. Does not contain BPA but will leach estrogenic chemicals. Take-away coffee cups are often styrofoam, with a paper lining coated with polyethylene that makes the paper water-tight. Next time you order a coffee to go, forget that LDPE container, as the very hot water will leach a hundred times more LDPE into the coffee. Instead, sit down in the Cafe and have your coffee in a regular porcelain cup. Relax and enjoy it
- #5 is PP (polypropylene)
Used in straws, food containers, and medicine bottles. A study found that polypropylene plastic products leached at least two chemicals, but is considered a low-toxin plastic, tolerant of heat, and safe. Again, it is NOT safe!
- #6 is PS (polystyrene)
Commonly known as Styrofoam. Used in many disposable plates, cups, bowls, take-away containers, coffee cups, meat trays, packing materials. Polystyrene leaches styrene and other toxins when heated, so never use them in the microwave. Styrene is a probable nerve toxin and carcinogen, and NOT safe
- #7 is Other - all other plastics
Products made from other plastics not listed above, or those being a combination of plastics. There are many types of #7 plastics, commonly used for very large water bottles, baby bottles and other polycarbonate plastics. Number 7 plastics vary considerably, but mostly they are polycarbonates containing BPA (Bisphenol-A) or BPS (Bisphenol-S). BPA and BPS both disrupt hormones, affecting growth, development, metabolism, mood, sexual function and reproductive ability. More than 2.6 million tons of BPA are manufactured every year, and studies show that 93% of American people over the age of 6 have BPA in their urine and bloodstream, and this exposure may lead to chromosomal errors, spontaneous miscarriages, genetic damage, decreased sperm quality, early puberty, stimulation of mammary gland development in males as well as females, disrupted reproductive cycles and ovarian dysfunction, cancer, heart disease, obesity, insulin resistance, and other chronic diseases
- BPA Free plastics? Manufacturers are heeding the growing public concern about BPA in food and drink containers, so they are now marketing their products as "BPA Free".
However, when they take out BPA, they replace it with BPS. True, BPS is not absorbed by the body as much as BPA, but when BPS is absorbed, the body has trouble excreting it, so keeps building up in the body, eventually reaching toxic levels.
The only way to be safe from plastics is:
- Buy fresh food, nothing processed. This avoids plastics and a host of chemicals added to processed foods
- Grow your own veggies
- Use glass containers to store food
HRT - Hormone Replacement TherapyHRT causes estrogen dominance and endometriosis. The hormones used are not natural human hormones. HRT Estrogen is made from the urine of pregnant horses. Progesterone is an incomplete synthetic copy, doing more harm than good, and typically testosterone, the most important, is missing altogether. Women need testosterone as much as men, but are more sensitive to it and do not need as much.
HRT got such a bad name, it is now called HT (Hormone Therapy) which is an attempt to fool people into thinking it is something new, but it is the same thing.
Bio-Identical Hormone Therapy is a different case. These hormones are normally prescribed by a doctor conversant with hormones. These doctors are very rare, but if you search hard enough, you will find them in most cities. Bio-Identical hormones are just that - hormones absolutely identical to those found in the human body, and normally individually adjusted after blood and/or saliva tests and consultation with the patient. Bio-identical hormones are normally made to order by compounding chemists and not available from regular chemists.
Doing the DetoxDetoxing receives a lot of publicity and advertising, but it is not something to once a year like spring cleaning the house. We must detox all the time by eating non-toxic foods, drinking non-toxic water, and living in a non-toxic environment. The body has an amazing ability to get rid of toxic elements, except when our overworked liver and kidneys eventually give up due to toxic overload.
Toxic WaterIn Adelaide, Australia, and most other Australian cities, we are forced by stupid Governments to drink water where toxic Fluoride has been added. Fluoride gets in the way of Iodine absorption, which is essential for correct Thyroid function. Other halides such as Chlorine and Bromides are also toxic. Chlorine is added to water to destroy pathogens, but it can react with organic matter in the water to form dangerous, carcinogenic Trihalomethanes. Drinking water should always be from a reverse-osmosis system, which can remove most fluoride, chlorine, arsenic, lead, aluminium and parasites.
Toxic FoodMany toxins are fat-soluble and accumulate in animal fat, and eating animal fats can cause significant exposure. Studies prove the animal fat link, and also show that fruit and vegetables have a reduced risk. Dioxons are prevalent in some oceans, contaminating fish. Where I live in South Australia, we are fortunate in having relatively clean water from the Southern Ocean. Be careful of fish coming from the polluted Northern Oceans of the world, and from fish farms, where fish are fed grains instead of natural food from the ocean.
Foods which can help with Endometriosis
- Lignans and fibre from flaxseeds also benefit estrogen conditions.
- Foods to limit estrogens: cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, onions and garlic, apples, parsley, tea, olives, olive oil, grapes, black currants, cranberries, all dark berries like blueberries, blackberries, bilberries, raspberries and cherries, and red wine (in moderation).
- Naringenin helps, and comes from all citrus fruits: lemon, orange, lime, tangerine. Also in grapefruit, but this is NOT recommended as it inhibits the cytochrome P450 isoform, an enzyme which we need to break down excess estrogens and remove toxins.
- Apigenin helps, and comes from chamomile, thyme, parsley, celery, artichokes, basil, peppermint, gingo biloba, horsetail herb, lemon balm herb, perilla herb, vervain herb, and yarrow.
- Genistein helps, and is an isoflavone from red clover, parsley, sage, green vegetables, fruits and especially legumes like chick peas, beans, and soy, BUT the fake estrogens (phytoestrogens) in soy compete with our natural estrogens, messing up our endocrine system. We should never consume soy, especially the GMO kind, although the fermented kinds consumed in Asian countries is not as bad. Soy is used as a cheap "filler" ingredient in thousands of processed foods, so fresh, real, unprocessed food is the only way we can eliminate it from the diet.
- Diadzein is another isoflavone from soy foods, but the dangers from soy outweigh any benefit of diadzein.
- Oleuropein is helpful, and comes from olive oil and the leaves of the olive tree.
- Resveratrol is from the seeds and skin of red grapes and all black and red berries.
- Linolenic and Linoleic Acid comes in multiple forms, all helpful:
- GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid), an omega-6 fatty acid, found in mushrooms, vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains, seeds, oils of safflower, sunflower, corn, soya, evening primrose, pumpkin, olives, borage oil and wheat germ
- ALA (Alpha-Linolenic Acid), an omega-3 fatty acid. Chia seed is an excellent source. The body cannot easily make these fatty acids, so they must come from the diet. Suppresses the enzyme 5-alpha reductase, reducing excess estrogens.
- CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) comes from red meat (grass fed, preferably wild such as kangaroo), eggs (free range, not grain fed) and dairy, so supplementation is even more important for vegetarians. Reduces fat, increases muscle, fights cancer, and excretes bad estrogens.
Supplements which can help Endometriosis
- Calcium D-Glucarate
Calcium D-Glucarate helps the liver eliminate harmful toxins and cancer-causing 16-alpha-hydroxyestrones
- DIM (Diindolyl Methane)
Like Calcium D-Glucarate, helps flush toxins and bad estrogen metabolites from the body
Quercetin works even better in conjunction with the digestive enzyme bromelain, found in pineapples.
- Quercetin with Bromelain supplements normally available from LeanMachine, or Bromelain only.
- Chrysin is a flavonoid from passion flower, bee pollen and raw honey. Best used as a cream rubbed into the skin, available from compounding chemists in Australia. Oral supplements have less bioavailability, but can be improved with piperine (from black pepper).
- Resveratrol is available as a supplement. If we drink red wine or eat grapes, we receive the complete polyphenol group, with improved function working together, but we would have to drink 15 glasses of wine every day to receive benefit from resveratrol, so supplements (generally extracted from grape skins) are a preferred option.
- Zinc is nature's best mineral, involved in many enzymatic reactions, and in building the immune system. Most of the zinc in a woman is in the ovaries, and in men, the testicles. Foods containing zinc include oysters, liver, meat, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, pecan nuts, brazil nuts, spinach, mushrooms and other vegetables.
- Omega-3 from Fish Oil, or much better from Krill Oil
Studies show benefits of omega-3 fatty acids for endometriosis sufferers, as growth of endometrioal tissue is reduced, and omega 3's can reduce prostaglandin E2, an inflammatory chemical in the body. Good sources of Omega-3 fatty acids include salmon, mackerel, sardines, anchovies, most deep-sea cold-water fish, walnuts, avocados and coconut oil. Supplements of Fish oil, or even better, Krill oil.
- Astaxanthin is up to 550 times stronger than vitamin E and 6,000 times stronger than vitamin C. Shown to protect skin from sun damage without blocking vitamin D absorption, and helps prevent what little testosterone we have left from converting to bad estrogens.
- Ginger Can sometimes help to ease nausea, which is a common symptom of endometriosis.
Avoid Chronic StressStress is good for us from time to time. A body in stress produces the hormone Cortisol, also known as the "fight or flight" hormone. High cortisol increases blood flow to the muscles so we can fight well or run fast, reduces blood flow to the extremities in case of wounding, and affects organs and other areas. This is fine for short bursts of energy when we need it, but chronic stress will kill us. Cortisol levels are typically much higher in women with severe endometriosis compared to healthy women. Modern society is full of stress. A nasty boss, traffic lights, running late, deadlines, family issues, money problems, screaming children, noise, scary movies, terrorism, spiders, all can cause stress, and the stress triggers can be different for each of us. The danger is that CHRONIC STRESS, or continual stress with no relief, causes many problems in the body due to the permanently high cortisol levels. Too much cortisol reduces progesterone, causing a hormonal imbalance, and increasing the risk of endometriosis.
The first thing to do is de-stress the mind and the body. Meditation for a few minutes a day in a quiet, dimly lit corner can be of great benefit, as can a Yoga or Tai-Chi class, or reading a book instead of watching TV.
Supplements can also help with stress reduction:
- Passionflower Extract (Passiflora incarnata)
- B-group vitamins
- Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
MeditationMeditation, deep breathing through the diaphram, relaxation, all can help.
NatureSpending trime in nature - a park or other green area, can reduce stress levels, even if only for a few minutes a day.
HobbiesSpend some time doing things you like - hobbies, sport, dancing, volunteering, community groups, any activity away from the stress triggers.
Avoid LonelinessFeeling lonesome? Join a group, go out and meet people, call an old friend to meet for a coffee.
ShrinkMany people resist going to a Psychologist, Counsellor, etc, but often talking to a professional can help us use mental tools to ease our problems.
Yoga or Tai-ChiGentle exercise can also help deal with stress.
Hydrotherapy – running Hot and ColdSome therapists recommend a "contrast sitz bath", although this may help relieve pain rather than treat the actual condition. A similar method using hot and cold showers is often used to relieve migraine headaches, very successfully for some people. Contrast Sitz treatment involves sitting in a bath of hot water for three minutes, then sitting in a cold-water bath for one minute, then repeating the process three times. Usually not carried out during menstruation. The method for migraines is to shower in the hottest water we can stand for two minutes, then turn off the hot tap and stand in cold water for two minutes, repeating the process several times. I think the shower method is the simplest, as not many people have two bathtubs handy. In both cases, I thought originally that the benefit may be that it is so uncomfortable that one forgets about the original pain, but it seems to work, presumably by de-sensitising our nerves, reducing our reaction to pain, as well as perhaps alternately stimulating and reducing blood flow to our extremities, and inversely to our internal organs.
Prescription MedicationProgesterone is an excellent aromatase inhibitor, so can be very beneficial for Endometriosis, and can also inhibit growth and even cause cell death of breast cancer tissue, by affecting p53 and Bcl-2 gene expression, but ONLY natural bio-identical progesterone should be used. High doses of progestin (synthetic progesterone) can have the reverse effect by stimulating breast cancer cells. This is the main reason why conventional HRT causes increased cancer. Progesterone can sometimes slow abnormal growth of endometrial tissue, and although not a cure, may help relieve period pain and pelvic pain. Seek a supplier of bio-identical hormones. In Australia you will still need a prescription for a compounding pharmacy. Many doctors have no understanding of the difference, so always seek a specialist in hormones. Some naturopaths recommend wild yam cream, which is similar to natural Progesterone, but unless processed in a laboratory, the body cannot convert it to true progesterone. Bio-Identical Progesterone is normally supplied as a cream, which is rubbed into thin areas of skin, where it is absorbed into the blood directly. It cannot be taken orally, as it will not survive past the stomach acid, enzymes, etc. Avoid other methods, like surgically implanting a pill just below the skin, as this gives a varying amount over several months as the pill breaks down at different rates, and the dose cannot be controlled without surgical removal. Patches and injections are other methods, but the cream is generally easier and more acceptable for most people. Progesterone levels should be monitored with regular blood tests. Too much may cause depression, fluid retention, weight gain, mood changes, abnormal (or sometimes absent) menstrual bleeding.
Many doctors prescribe Tamoxifen to reduce estrogens, but this has nasty side effects including stroke, blood clots, uterine cancer, and cataracts. A better natural alternative is Calcium D-Glucarate which one study showed that is just as effective as Tamoxifen, and was able to reduce the number of estrogen receptors by 48 percent, and to lower serum estrogen levels by 23 percent.
This works for men as well, helping to reduce man-boobs (Gynecomastia) and excess body fat by reducing estrogen.
Many doctors will recommend anti-depressants, even if we are not suffering from stress!
This is a big mistake, as the disadvantages (like double the risk of suicide) far outweigh any benefits, and the benefits are poor anyway. Some say that the feel-good benefit of an extra teaspoon of sugar is about equal to that of taking an anti-depressant. I am not saying we need sugar, far from it, I am simply illustrating the poor benefit. For more info, read my article on Antidepressants
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DisclaimerLeanMachine is not a doctor, and everyone should consult with their own health professional before taking any product to ensure there is no conflict with existing prescription medication.
LeanMachine has been studying nutrition and health since 2011 and has completed many relevant studies including:
Open2Study, Australia - Food, Nutrition and Your Health
RMIT University, Australia - Foundations of Psychology
Swinburne University of Technology, Australia - Chemistry - Building Blocks of the World
University of Washington, USA - Energy, Diet and Weight
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA - Health Issues for Aging Populations
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA - International Nutrition
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA - Methods in Biostatistics I
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA - Methods in Biostatistics II
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA - Principles of Human Nutrition
TUFTS University, USA - Nutrition and Medicine
TUFTS University, USA - Lipids/Cardiovascular Disease I and Lipids/Cardiovascular Disease II
Technical Learning College, USA - Western Herbology, Identification, Formulas
Bath University, England - Inside Cancer
WebMD - The Link Between Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation
LeanMachine has now read thousands of studies, journals and reports related to health and nutrition and this research is ongoing.
Updated 4th June 2017, Copyright © 1999-2017 Brenton Wight and BJ & HJ Wight trading as Lean Machine abn 55293601285