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Honey Beats Traditional Treatment for Respiratory Infections

Reproduced from original article:
Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola    Fact Checked    September 14, 2020



  • A review of 14 studies showed honey to be superior to the usual treatment of cold symptoms in adults
  • It was as effective as cough medicine in children when compared to two common over-the-counter medications — dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine
  • Most upper respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses that do not respond to antibiotics. Using honey may slow the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria
  • Honey you buy from the grocery store may be adulterated or fake. Seek local producers at farmers markets and test the physical properties, including scent, thickness, taste and stickiness

The medical term to describe the common cold is an upper respiratory infection (URI). This is often caused by a virus that infects your nose, throat and mouth. There are more than 200 different viruses responsible, with rhinoviruses being the most common.1

In one cross-sectional study published in 2016, scientists in India analyzed the incidence of URIs in rural and urban populations.2 There were a total of 3,498 people checked during the study, out of which 287 had an upper respiratory infection at the time. Children were infected more often than adults, especially those younger than 5.

Antibiotic prescriptions are not recommended for children or adults with a common cold because those medications treat bacterial, rather than viral infections. The CDC recommends focusing on symptomatic relief, as:3

“There is potential for harm and no proven benefit from over-the-counter cough and cold medications in children < 6 years. These substances are among the top 20 substances leading to death in children < 5 years.”

Identify Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

Many of the symptoms of seasonal allergies, the common cold and lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) with flu can look similar. Acute LRIs from flu were linked to 34,800 deaths in 2018; that’s why it’s important to be able to understand the symptoms.4

In a review of the literature from 2015, scientists looked at 56 studies and found 124 definitions of upper and lower acute respiratory infections.5 This variability influences the ability to generalize prevention and treatment recommendations.

Doctors from Louisville, Kentucky, say there are signs and symptoms that distinguish seasonal allergies, colds and flu:6

Stuffy nose Common Common Sometimes
Sneezing Common Usual Sometimes
Sore throat Sometimes Common Sometimes
Cough Sometimes Mild to moderate Common, can become severe
Fever No Rare High, 102° F to 104° F for three to four days
Headache Common Rare Often
Fatigue Common Mild Lasts two to three weeks
Aches and pains Never Slight Can be severe

Honey Is Superior Treatment for URIs

Although children are infected more commonly than adults with the cold virus, it continues to be the third-most frequent diagnosis for adults who sometimes get between two and four colds each year.7 The CDC recommends that adults treat their symptoms with decongestants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories.

The use of antihistamines on their own, intranasal corticosteroids and opioids are not supported by scientific evidence. Even though the majority of URIs are the result of a viral infection, acute respiratory tract infections continue to be the most common reason antibiotics are prescribed for adults.8 The Mayo Clinic recommends specific at-home treatments:9

Drinking plenty of fluids Eating chicken soup
Controlling the room temperature and humidity Using saltwater gargle to soothe your throat
Using saline nasal drops to relieve congestion Using over-the-counter cold and cough medications for symptomatic relief

While over-the-counter (OTC) medications are not regarded as effective for children younger than 6, in a Cochrane Review of the literature it’s noted that although many preparations have only minor side effects in adults, they may not work any better than a placebo.10

The authors of a recent review of the literature sought to evaluate how honey stacked up against usual care and antibiotics for symptomatic relief in adults with upper respiratory infections. The scientists included 14 studies in which cough frequency, cough severity and symptom scores were compared. They concluded:11

“Honey was superior to usual care for the improvement of symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. It provides a widely available and cheap alternative to antibiotics. Honey could help efforts to slow the spread of antimicrobial resistance, but further high quality, placebo controlled trials are needed.”

The results of this study support past data with similar results. In one Italian study involving 134 children with a nonspecific cough, researchers compared the use of multiple doses of honey to the use of dextromethorphan and levodropropizine, two the more commonly prescribed OTC cough medications in Italy.12

The children were given either a mixture of milk and wildflower honey or a dose of one of the medications, based on the group they were assigned to. The researchers found that the milk and honey mixture was at least as effective as the medications.

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Honey Reduces Nighttime Cough in Children

In an earlier study, the effectiveness of honey was compared to that of dextromethorphan in 105 children with URIs who had been sick for seven days or less. The researchers found that honey performed the best and parents rated it more favorably.13

Another group of researchers compared the effectiveness of dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine to that of honey. They were interested in whether the treatments reduced coughing associated with URIs that made it difficult to sleep. One hundred thirty-nine children were split into four groups, receiving either honey, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine or supportive care.

The study team found that a 2.5 ml dose of honey at bedtime relieved more coughs than the other treatments. Interestingly, there was no statistical difference in the effectiveness of dextromethorphan versus diphenhydramine.14

According to the authors of a paper published in the Canadian Family Physician, in a given week, one or more OTC products are used by more than 50% of children who are younger than 12.15 Cough and cold medications account for most of them.

Based on the results of a meta-analysis, scientists demonstrated there was no evidence for or against the use of OTC medications.16 In another clinical trial an Egyptian team enrolled 100 children ages 5 and younger who were coughing because of a URI. The intervention group received cough medicine with a combination of honey and lemon.17

The researchers found that the children who were given honey and lemon experienced greater relief than those who only got the medication. Many OTC medications carry potential risks for children, including both insomnia and drowsiness.

Taken together, the results from all of these studies suggest that honey works as well as dextromethorphan and diphenhydramine. It’s also safer. However, it shouldn’t be used in children younger than 1 year old because it can contain dormant clostridium botulinum, which can lead to infantile botulism.

For this reason, it’s important not to give children younger than 1 year any products that contain honey. The author of a paper published in the Canadian Family Physician says that honey can be recommended “… as a single dose of 2.5 milliliters (one-half teaspoon) before bedtime for children older than 1 year of age with cough.”18

May Help Slow the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

A secondary benefit to using natural products like honey is it helps to slow the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The overuse of antibiotics is a contributing factor to the growth of superbugs.19 Researchers have suggested that education for parents20 and professionals21 can help reduce antibiotic misuse.

In one retrospective chart review, it was found that 64.2% of people with respiratory tract infections received inappropriate antibiotics, the most common of which were azithromycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin) and moxifloxacin.22 Interestingly, in this review, penicillin allergy and the presence of a cough were significant predictors of the inappropriate use of antibiotics.

Some bacteria have developed a resistance to multiple antibiotics. The CDC estimates that “… more than 2.8 million antibiotic-resistant infections occur in the U.S. each year, and more than 35,000 people die as a result.”23

Some experts believe the actual numbers could be up to seven times higher.24 An infectious disease specialist from Washington University, Dr. Jason Burnham, along with two colleagues, surveyed data from 2010. They expanded the definition of antibiotic-resistant deaths and concluded that 153,113 deaths could have been attributed to multidrug-resistant organisms.

These reports drive home what experts have warned us about for decades — bacteria are continuing to evolve and mutate so they can survive. As more and more antibiotics are used in health care and in agriculture, they become less and less effective and we become increasingly vulnerable to antibiotic-resistant infections.

Take Care With the Honey You Buy

Honey has been used for centuries for its medicinal value and because people enjoy the taste. Scientists have found that it has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica.25 It has demonstrated activity against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.26

Manuka honey has been used to treat wounds because it inhibits bacterial growth while stimulating a local immune response and suppressing inflammation.27 The benefits of honey are significant, but as I’ve warned in the past, those do not extend to the processed honey you find on grocery store shelves, which is often little more than fructose syrup.

It is especially important the honey from the grocery store is never used on wounds because it can actually increase your risk of infection.

In addition to the challenges of finding quality honey in regular stores, it’s come to light that honey may be adulterated or even faked — presented and sold as honey when in actuality it’s something else — because the bee population is plummeting and not as much real honey is available. You’ll find more information in “Have You Been Eating High-Priced Fake Honey?

Consider getting true, organic honey from local producers at farmer’s markets. Since real honey doesn’t expire, even after opening, it’s safe to buy enough in the summer to last until the following spring.28 It also pays to know how to test your honey at home. Here are some of the physical properties you can look for in quality honey:29

Scent — Your first test is the aroma coming from the jar, which should be reminiscent of the flowers and grasses the bees collect pollen from; industrial honey has an industrial smell.
Thickness — The movement should be slow and dense. Place a droplet on your thumb. If it starts to spread, the honey is not pure. Dense, pure honey will remain intact.
Taste — When eating pure honey, the taste disappears quickly, but adulterated honey is sugary rich.
Dissolving — When added to water, pure honey will form a lump and stick together, while adulterated honey dissolves. Pure honey will not be absorbed into blotting paper or cloth, but adulterated honey will leave stains as it absorbs.
Heat and flame — When heated on the stove, adulterated honey will form bubbles. Try dipping the end of a match in honey and lighting it. If it lights, the honey is likely pure since the added moisture in adulterated honey makes it nearly impossible to light.
Tests — Consider these additional tests:

  • Add 2 to 3 tablespoons of vinegar to a glass of water. Add honey and stir well. Adulterated honey will foam.
  • Spread some honey on a piece of bread; pure honey will solidify the bread while adulterated honey will make it wet and soft.
  • Check for impurities by looking at it through a clear container. Adulterated honey will be clear while pure honey will have particles from pollen or bee parts.

Bradykinin Hypothesis Explains COVID-19 Complexities

Reproduced from original article:
Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola    Fact Checked    September 14, 2020


  • Genetic analysis using the Oak Ridge National Lab supercomputer has revealed an interesting new hypothesis — the bradykinin hypothesis — that helps explain the disease progression of COVID-19
  • The bradykinin hypothesis also strengthens the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a really important role in the disease
  • SARS-CoV-2 not only infects cells that naturally have high numbers of ACE2 receptors but also tricks your body into upregulating ACE2 receptors in places where they’re usually expressed at lower levels, such as your lungs
  • SARS-CoV-2 also downregulates your body’s ability to degrade or break down bradykinin, a chemical that helps regulate your blood pressure and is controlled by your renin-angiotensin system
  • The end result is a bradykinin storm, which appears to be the primary cause behind many of COVID-19’s lethal effects, even more so than the cytokine storms associated with the disease
  • The virus also increases production of hyaluronic acid (HLA) in your lungs. HLA has the ability to absorb more than 1,000 times its own weight in fluid, and when it combines with the built-up fluid in the lungs, it forms a thick hydrogel that makes breathing very difficult

Genetic analysis using the Oak Ridge National Lab supercomputer called the Summit has revealed an interesting new hypothesis that helps explain the disease progression of COVID-19. A September 1, 2020, Medium article1 by Thomas Smith reviewed the findings of what is now referred to as the bradykinin hypothesis.

As reported by Smith, the computer crunched data on more than 40,000 genes obtained from 17,000 genetic samples.

“Summit is the second-fastest computer in the world, but the process — which involved analyzing 2.5 billion genetic combinations — still took more than a week. When Summit was done, researchers analyzed the results. It was, in the words of Dr. Daniel Jacobson, lead researcher and chief scientist for computational systems biology at Oak Ridge, a ‘eureka moment.’”

The Bradykinin Hypothesis

Bradykinin is a chemical that helps regulate your blood pressure and is controlled by your renin-angiotensin system (RAS). As explained in the Academic Press’ book on vitamin D (which has a significant impact on the RAS):2

“The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a central regulator of renal and cardiovascular functions. Over-activation of the RAS leads to renal and cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension and chronic kidney disease, the major risk factors for stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, progressive atherosclerosis, and renal failure.”

The bradykinin hypothesis provides a model that helps explain some of the more unusual symptoms of COVID-19, including its bizarre effects on the cardiovascular system. It also strengthens the hypothesis that vitamin D plays a really important role in the disease.

The findings3 were published in the journal eLife July 7, 2020. Based on this new hypothesis, the researchers also suggest more than 10 potential treatments, most of which are readily available drugs already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. I’ll review those later on.

As detailed in previous articles, your ACE2 receptors are the primary gateways of the virus, as the virus’ spike protein binds to the ACE2 receptor. As explained by Smith:4

“… COVID-19 infection generally begins when the virus enters the body through ACE2 receptors in the nose … The virus then proceeds through the body, entering cells in other places where ACE2 is also present: the intestines, kidneys, and heart. This likely accounts for at least some of the disease’s cardiac and GI symptoms.

But once Covid-19 has established itself in the body, things start to get really interesting … The data Summit analyzed shows that COVID-19 isn’t content to simply infect cells that already express lots of ACE2 receptors. Instead, it actively hijacks the body’s own systems, tricking it into upregulating ACE2 receptors in places where they’re usually expressed at low or medium levels, including the lungs.

In this sense, COVID-19 is like a burglar who slips in your unlocked second-floor window and starts to ransack your house. Once inside, though, they don’t just take your stuff — they also throw open all your doors and windows so their accomplices can rush in and help pillage more efficiently.”

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Bradykinin Storm Likely Responsible for Lethal Effects

In addition to upregulating ACE2 receptors throughout your body, the SARS-CoV-2 virus also downregulates your body’s ability to degrade or break down bradykinin.

The end result is a bradykinin storm, and according to the researchers, this appears to be an important factor in many of COVID-19’s lethal effects, even more so than the cytokine storms associated with the disease. As bradykinin accumulates, the more serious COVID-19 symptoms appear.

Mounting clinical data suggest COVID-19 is actually primarily a vascular disease rather than a respiratory one, and runaway bradykinin buildup can help explain this.

How SARS-CoV-2 Attacks the Lungs

That said, COVID-19 certainly has a respiratory component, and it appears the virus attacks the lungs in more ways than one. For starters, bradykinin increases vascular permeability, essentially causing your blood vessels to leak fluid. In the lungs, this leads to fluid buildup that can trigger inflammation when immune cells also leak out into the lungs.

But the Summit data also show the virus uses yet another pathway, which raises production of hyaluronic acid (HLA) in your lungs. HLA has the ability to absorb more than 1,000 times its own weight in fluid, and when it combines with the built-up fluid in the lungs, the effect is devastating, as it ends up forming a thick hydrogel that makes breathing near-impossible.

When this happens — in severe cases — even mechanical ventilation becomes ineffective, as the alveoli in the lungs are simply too clogged with this gel-like substance that prevents oxygen uptake.

Note that the HLA produced in your lungs does not mean that using supplemental HLA is a bad strategy. It is only when HLA is produced locally in high concentrations in pathologic conditions like COVID-19 that it becomes problematic. Otherwise it has important physiologic benefits.

How SARS-CoV-2 Attacks Your Heart and Brain

SARS-CoV-2 can also affect heart function, causing arrhythmias and low blood pressure. About 1 in 5 COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalizations have experienced damage to their heart. Your heart has ACE2 receptors, so SARS-CoV-2 has the ability to infect your heart directly. Arrhythmias and low blood pressure can also be the result of a bradykinin storm.

In some cases, COVID-19 has also been known to trigger neurological symptoms such as dizziness, seizures, delirium and stroke, and this too can be explained by bradykinin buildup.

At high levels, bradykinin can lead to a breakdown of your blood-brain barrier, thereby allowing harmful compounds to flood your brain. Bradykinin itself also causes blood vessel leakage. Together, these effects can trigger inflammation, brain damage and a variety of neurological symptoms.

SARS-CoV-2 Mimics ACE Inhibiting Drugs

Interestingly, as reported by Smith:5

“Increased bradykinin levels could also account for other common COVID-19 symptoms. ACE inhibitors — a class of drugs used to treat high blood pressure — have a similar effect on the RAS system as COVID-19, increasing bradykinin levels.

In fact, Jacobson and his team note in their paper that ‘the virus … acts pharmacologically as an ACE inhibitor’ — almost directly mirroring the actions of these drugs.

By acting like a natural ACE inhibitor, COVID-19 may be causing the same effects that hypertensive patients sometimes get when they take blood pressure-lowering drugs. ACE inhibitors are known to cause a dry cough and fatigue, two textbook symptoms of COVID-19.

And they can potentially increase blood potassium levels, which has also been observed in COVID-19 patients. The similarities between ACE inhibitor side effects and COVID-19 symptoms strengthen the bradykinin hypothesis, the researchers say.”

Another side effect associated with ACE inhibiting drugs is the loss of smell and taste. This is also an early sign associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it’s a primary symptom of zinc deficiency too.

Zinc, as explained in “Swiss Protocol for COVID — Quercetin and Zinc,” plays a vital role in immunity as well as in blood clotting, cell division, thyroid health, smell and taste, vision and wound healing, and can effectively inhibit viral replication.

Your body does not store zinc, and it’s poorly absorbed, which appears to be why the combination of zinc and zinc ionophores such as quercetin and hydroxychloroquine are so effective when taken at first symptoms.

Bradykinin Hypothesis Explains Other COVID-19 Symptoms Too

The bradykinin storm also helps explain other odd COVID-19 symptoms such as “COVID toes,” a condition in which your toes become swollen and bruised. This may be due to leaky vasculature in your toes.

As explained by Smith, it can also shed helpful light on the gender differences seen in COVID-19. Women tend to have a lower mortality rate than men, and this may be due to the fact that women have twice the level of certain proteins involved in the RAS system.

bradykinin storm
Image source: Daniel Jacobson et al. via eLife Sciences

Potential Treatments

The good news is that if bradykinin storms are to blame, there are a number of already existing drugs that can help prevent bradykinin storms, either reducing bradykinin or blocking its receptors. As noted in the study:6

“Several interventional points (most of them already FDA-approved pharmaceuticals) could be explored with the goal of increasing ACE, decreasing BK [bradykinin], or blocking BK2 receptors.

Icatibant is a BKB2R antagonist whereas Ecallantide acts to inhibit KLKB1, reducing levels of BK production. Androgens (danazol and stanasolol) increase SERPING1, although the side effects likely make these undesirable, but recombinant forms of SERPING1 could be administered to reduce BK levels.

It should be noted that any intervention may need to be timed correctly given that REN levels rise on a diurnal cycle, peaking at 4AM which corresponds with the commonly reported worsening of COVID-19 symptoms at night …

4-methylumbelliferone (Hymecromone) is a potent inhibitor of HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 gene expression and results in the suppression of the production of hyaluronan in an ARDS model.

Hymecromone (4-methylumbelliferone) is approved for use in Asia and Europe for the treatment of biliary spasm. However, it can cause diarrhea with subsequent hypokalemia, so considerable caution should be used if this were to be tried with COVID-19 patients … Timbetasin may reduce COVID-19 related coagulopathies by increasing fibrinolysis.”

However, please understand that taking these drugs is absolutely not my recommendation. These are simply the conventional strategies that can be used if this hypothesis is correct.

Why on earth would we use dangerous drugs like these for a disease that they have not been tested on when we have so many other safe, inexpensive and highly effective interventions for COVID-19? Strategies like nebulized peroxide, ozone, molecular hydrogen, exogenous ketones, and quercetin with zinc.

Evidence for Vitamin D Strengthens

The researchers also highlight the usefulness of vitamin D, noting that “Another approach would be the modulation of REN levels via Vitamin D supplementation …” Vitamin D is involved in the RAS system,7,8,9 and can reduce a compound called renin (REN), thereby preventing a deadly bradykinin storm. Renin is an endopeptidase, the function of which is to generate angiotensin 1 from angiotensinogen in your plasma.

If you are vitamin D deficient, your renin expression is stimulated, and based on the latest data, that may render you more prone to bradykinin storm.

Several investigations have highlighted the apparent influence of vitamin D in COVID-19 incidence, severity and mortality, and its effects on RAS further strengthens the idea that vitamin D may be a crucial component in your COVID-19 defense arsenal.

As explained in the 2004 paper,10 “Vitamin D: A Negative Endocrine Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Blood Pressure,” when the RAS system is inappropriately activated, high blood pressure can result.

One factor that influences your RAS is your vitamin D level, as it suppresses renin biosynthesis. If you are vitamin D deficient, your renin expression is stimulated, and based on the latest data, that may render you more prone to bradykinin storm.

The Evidence for Vitamin D

In a November 1, 2020 commentary11 in the journal Metabolism Clinical and Experimental, JoAnn Manson and Shari Bassuk call for the elimination of vitamin D deficiency to effectively squelch the COVID-19 pandemic, noting that 23.3% of the total U.S. population have insufficient or deficient vitamin D levels, with people of color having disproportionately lower levels than non-Hispanic whites.

They list several types of studies showing vitamin D deficiency is “an important modifiable risk factor for COVID-19,” including:12

Laboratory studies that demonstrate how vitamin D helps regulate immune function and the RAS, and modulate inflammatory responses to infection.

Ecologic studies showing populations with lower vitamin D levels or lower UVB radiation exposure have higher COVID-19 mortality,13,14,15 and the fact that people identified as being at greatest risk for COVID-19 hospitalization and death (people of color, the elderly, nursing home residents and those with comorbidities such as obesity, vascular conditions and chronic kidney disease) also have a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency.

A pilot randomized clinical study16,17 published online August 29, 2020, found hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Spain who were given supplemental vitamin D (calcifediol) in addition to standard of care — which included the use of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin — had significantly lower intensive care unit admissions.

Patients in the vitamin D arm received 532 micrograms of calcifediol on the day of admission (equivalent to 106,400 IUs of vitamin D18) followed by 266 mcg on Days 3 and 7 (equivalent to 53,200 IUs19). After that, they received 266 mcg once a week until discharge, ICU admission or death.

Of those receiving calcifediol, only 2% required ICU admission, compared to 50% of those who did not get calcifediol. None of those given vitamin D supplementation died, and all were discharged without complications.

Observational studies showing low vitamin D levels are associated with a greater risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and contracting acute respiratory infections.

Most recently, a September 3, 2020 JAMA study20 reported that people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were 1.77 times more likely to be deficient in vitamin D than those who tested negative for the virus.

Randomized clinical trials showing vitamin D inhibits respiratory tract infections, especially in those with lower vitamin D levels at baseline.

REALLY IMPORTANT: Optimize Your Vitamin D Level Now

For years, I’ve stressed the importance of optimizing your vitamin D level, especially in anticipation of flu season, and it seems clear it can go a long way toward protecting yourself against COVID-19 as well.

Aside from what’s already been mentioned, vitamin D also helps Type II cells in your lungs produce surfactant that aids in fluid clearance. When you’re vitamin D deficient, your entire RAS is deranged or dysfunctional, thereby raising your risk of both bradykinin storm and cytokine storm.

In closing, experts have been warning that SARS-CoV-2 may reemerge in the fall when temperatures and humidity levels drop, thereby increasing the virus’ transmissibility.

Now is the time to check your vitamin D level and start taking action to raise it if you’re below 60 ng/mL. An easy and cost-effective way of measuring your vitamin D level is to order GrassrootsHealth’s vitamin D testing kit and learn more about vitamin D and its impact on your health.

Knowledge is empowerment, and that is particularly true during this pandemic. To learn more about the influence of vitamin D on your health in general and COVID-19 in particular, see my vitamin D report.

Your lung function is an important predictor of health and longevity

Reproduced from original article:
by:  | September 10, 2020

lung-function(NaturalHealth365) Since none of us are immortal, the impulse to estimate how many years we might have left is perfectly natural. But, what is the most accurate predictor of lifespan? Some studies have focused on factors such as telomere length, while others have examined levels of important antioxidants like glutathione. But, it turns out that the biggest clue to longevity is your lung function.

In fact, a peer-reviewed study supports this point of view.  And, with COVID on everyone’s mind, we thought this a very important topic to discuss.  So, today, we’ll focus our attention on how lung health is directly connected to our ability to live a long, healthy life or not!

Health ALERT: Limited lung function can have severe consequences

Lung capacity is defined as the maximum amount of air the lungs can hold, while lung function involves the speed with which you can inhale and exhale. Lung function also involves how efficiently your lungs oxygenate the blood, while at the same time removing carbon dioxide.

Both lung function and lung capacity can be measured by a spirometry test. Also known as a pulmonary function test, spirometry measures the lungs’ forced vital capacity (FVC), which involves lung size and exhalation capability, and the FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) which measures how much air can be exhaled in one second.

When lung capacity and function are limited, less oxygen enters the bloodstream, cells and tissues – resulting in shortness of breath, reduced endurance and decreased cardiorespiratory fitness.

Because limited lung function causes the heart to work harder, this can lead over time to heart failure and heart attacks.  Other adverse effects include impaired metabolic and digestive functions, problems with cognition and memory, increased inflammation and heightened susceptibility to respiratory infections.

Do NOT ignore the health dangers linked to toxic indoor air.  These chemicals – the ‘off-gassing’ of paints, mattresses, carpets and other home/office building materials – increase your risk of headaches, dementia, heart disease and cancer.

Get the BEST indoor air purification system – at the LOWEST price, exclusively for NaturalHealth365 readers.  I, personally use this system in my home AND office.  Click HERE to order now – before the sale ends.

Study: Poor lung capacity can double your risk of premature death

In a 29-year study published in Chest, the peer-reviewed journal of the American College of Chest Physicians, researchers assessed the pulmonary function of 1,194 adults ranging in age from 20 to 89.

After adjusting for factors such as age, body mass, blood pressure, education and smoking, the team found that lung capacity was strongly related to all-cause mortality in both men and women.

Men with the poorest lung capacity were a shocking 2.24 times more likely to die from any cause than those with the highest capacity, while women were 1.81 times more likely to die.

Concluding that lung capacity and volume is a “strong and independent predictor of both all-cause and disease-specific mortality,” the researchers suggested that this could be used as an important tool for general health assessment.

By the way, this is not the only study linking lung capacity with lifespan. In an earlier investigation known as the Framingham study, researchers found that people with generous lung volume were healthier and lived longer than those with limited lung capacity.

Warning: Too many people experience poor lung health as early as age 30

As with so many other body functions, lung capacity declines with age. Lung tissue becomes less flexible, the diaphragm muscle becomes weaker, and the rib cage may contract, leaving less room for lungs to expand.

In fact, Dr. Adrian Draper, a respiratory consultant at Spire St. Anthony Hospital, reports that lung capacity at age 60 may be only two thirds of what it was at age 30.  In addition, diseases such as COPD, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis (scarring) take a toll on lung capacity.

Conventionally speaking, lung function can’t be improved. However, the Lung Health Institute reports that lung capacity – the amount of air available to be used – can be.

Increasing lung capacity can provide a wealth of health benefits – including better immune defense against disease, accelerated wound healing, sharpened focus and concentration, improved digestion and more efficient elimination of waste.

Simple lifestyle choices can improve lung capacity

If you still smoke, quitting is the single most important thing you can do prevent and combat COPD and increase lung capacity. If you have tried to quit without success, don’t beat yourself up – but don’t give up. Many ex-smokers report that it took several attempts before they achieved success.

As excess fat can push on the chest and interfere with lung function, it can be helpful to shed pounds if you are overweight or obese.  In addition, you can support healthy lung capacity by avoiding allergens, environmental toxins, secondhand smoke and dust.  Remove dust and vacuum frequently – using a HEPA filter.

The Lung Health Institute recommends jettisoning household objects – such as drapes and tablecloths – that may act as “dust catchers,” and washing bed sheets regularly at high temperature.

Bypass chemical air fresheners in favor of scenting your home with essential oils, and substitute organic cleaning products for harsh cleaners.  And, of course, a good indoor air filtration system is a powerful weapon against toxins and pollutants.

Breathing exercises and techniques – including coordinated breathing, deep breathing and diaphragmatic breathing – can also help restore lung capacity. You can find some suggestions here.

Vitamin D – which is antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune system-boosting – can be a boon to pulmonary function. Studies reveal that people with COPD who accompany standard rehabilitation measures with increased vitamin D intake show improvement in their ability to exercise. As always, check with your integrative doctor before supplementing.

Physical exercise can be highly beneficial for improving lung capacity. Experts recommend interspersing low-intensity activities with high-intensity exercise for maximum benefit. However, before beginning any exercise routine, consult your integrative doctor to work out a program that is safe and effective for you. (Note: This is especially important if you suffer from COPD).

Finally, you can promote relaxation and manage stress naturally with techniques such as biofeedback, acupuncture, guided meditation and yoga (which helps with both breathing and relaxation).

The key point is this: with the right lifestyle choices and techniques, you have the power to help your lungs tell the story of a longer, healthier life.  Take action today and enjoy the results.

Sources for this article include:

12 Targeted Nutritional Strategies for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Reproduced from original article:  | August 21, 2020

chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-solutions(NaturalHealth365) The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that over 16 million Americans are currently living with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a debilitating condition characterized by difficulty breathing and blocked airflow to the lungs. While Western medicine may attempt to treat COPD with drugs such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, these can feature toxic side effects that can include osteoporosis, pneumonia and even premature death.Fortunately, natural solutions do exist!  Scientific research has shown that certain foods and supplements can markedly improve lung function and help alleviate COPD. Let’s take a look at twelve of the most promising nutritional strategies.

Inflammation and oxidative stress are the twin engines driving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease encompasses two primary conditions: emphysema (damage to the tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow for oxygen exchange) and chronic bronchitis due to inflamed airways. As the disease develops, narrowing and scarring of the airway may occur.

Common COPD symptoms include shortness of breath, persistent cough, wheezing and the production of sputum.  Oxidative stress, in which harmful free radicals lead to cell and tissue damage, is a major factor in COPD. Inflammation – the presence in the lungs of inflammatory cells such as eosinophils -also plays a role.

Cigarette smoking, which accounts for 75 percent of cases, is the primary cause of COPD. Exposure to other irritants and fumes – such as coal and woodsmoke – can also play a role.

The following nutrients have been shown to help alleviate COPD.  Of course, you should consult your experienced integrative doctor before adding any to your daily health routine.

Do NOT ignore the health dangers linked to toxic indoor air.  These chemicals – the ‘off-gassing’ of paints, mattresses, carpets and other home/office building materials – increase your risk of headaches, dementia, heart disease and cancer.

Get the BEST indoor air purification system – at the LOWEST price, exclusively for NaturalHealth365 readers.  I, personally use this system in my home AND office.  Click HERE to order now – before the sale ends.

Turn to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for natural COPD relief

NAC, a supplement derived from the amino acid cysteine, has been credited by researchers with the ability to dissolve mucous, quell coughs and counteract oxidative stress.

Extensive studies have shown that NAC improves symptoms and helps slow declines in lung function. In one influential study, people with moderate-to-severe COPD who were given 1,200 mg a day of NAC improved their performance on post-exercise lung function tests.

But, remember: If you have an organ transplant, stomach ulcer or take any medication like, nitroglycerin – talk to your doctor (and pharmacist) before taking NAC.

Go with glutathione for improved respiratory function

Glutathione, a natural chemical produced in the liver, plays a vital role in boosting the immune system and neutralizing environmental toxins. Plus, its extraordinary antioxidant powers can help it combat COPD.

Glutathione is found in high concentrations in lung epithelial lining fluid and can help improve lung function and reduce inflammation.  You can ramp up your dietary intake of glutathione with fresh avocados, asparagus, cucumbers and tomatoes. Eating cruciferous vegetables, such as spinach and cauliflower, also spurs production of glutathione.

Natural healers typically advise glutathione in dosages of 500 to 1,000 mg a day.  For maximum benefit, opt for a liposomal formulation – and take it with vitamin C.

Good news: Studies suggest CoQ10 improves chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

A vitamin-like nutrient that is needed for muscle growth and repair, coenzyme Q10 can play an important role in reversing damage to the smooth muscle cells of the airway.

One influential clinical study showed that CoQ10 had favorable effects on muscular energy metabolism in patients with COPD. Good dietary sources include grass-fed beef liver, poultry, cold-water fatty fish, spinach and broccoli.

Don’t forget fish oil

Fish oil is rich in EPA and DHA, a pair of fatty acids hailed for their anti-inflammatory effects.

Peer-reviewed clinical studies have shown that these beneficial compounds reduce shortness of breath and inflammatory markers in COPD patients. Natural health experts typically advise dosages of 1,000 to 1,200 mg a day.

Research supports the value of resveratrol

Resveratrol, a flavonoid found in grapes, peanuts, cocoa and blueberries, has piqued researchers’ interest for its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

In a just-published review appearing in Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, the authors noted that resveratrol decreases inflammation and oxidative stress in the lung – and called it a “promising candidate” for decreasing lung injury from COPD.

Utilize the disease-fighting power of zinc

Zinc, an essential trace mineral, is believed to protect the health and function of respiratory cells during lung inflammation or injury.

In a study published in Respiratory Medicine, researchers measured the effect of zinc picolinate on volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The team concluded that zinc supplementation could have favorable effects on the antioxidant capacity of COPD patients.

Significantly, researchers report that zinc deficiencies are linked with increased risk of both cystic fibrosis and COPD.  Good sources of zinc include oysters, grass-fed beef, poultry and pumpkin seeds.

Boswellia serrata – an ancient herbal remedy earns scientific credibility

Also known as Indian frankincense, boswellia has been utilized by herbalists for centuries to treat respiratory problems.

Animal studies have shown that boswellic acids from frankincense help to block the production of pro-inflammatory chemicals, alleviate airway dysfunction and prevent the progression of experimentally induced lung fibrosis (scarring).

These encouraging COPD-fighting results have been reinforced by human studies.  One clinical study showed that boswellia caused substantial improvement in COPD by specifically inhibiting human leukocyte elastase (an enzyme which triggers emphysema and chronic bronchitis).

Boswellia may be recommended in dosages of 300 to 500 mg, two to three times a day.

Quercetin helps put the brakes on inflammation

Quercetin, an antioxidant flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, has been shown to significantly decrease lung inflammation. And, researchers found in one preclinical trial that it helped to prevent COPD from progressing.

You can increase dietary intake of quercetin with apples, onions, grapes and green tea.

Vitamin D – the “sunshine vitamin” – benefits lung function

Vitamin D, which is produced in the skin in response to sunlight, has been shown to help regulate airway contraction.

Studies have revealed that having low levels of vitamin D raises the risk of COPD – while high-dose vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve muscle strength and exercise capacity in COPD patients.

Natural health experts advise getting 20 minutes of direct sunlight several times a week to ensure sufficient vitamin D levels. You can also boost dietary intake with cold-water fatty fish, cage-free eggs, mushrooms and almonds.

While individual needs can vary, integrative doctors typically recommend between 5,000 and 8,000 IU of vitamin D a day.  Supplementation is particularly important if you’re deficient. (below 30 ng/mL)

Address COPD with antioxidant vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, has potent antioxidant, antihistamine and anti-inflammatory effects that make it useful in treating COPD.  In fact, studies have shown that people with low levels of vitamin C have an increased risk of COPD.

In a 2016 review, the authors noted that dietary vitamin C can lower oxidative stress and restore the proliferation of alveolar cells in the lungs.  Good sources include citrus fruits, red bell peppers, broccoli and strawberries.

Many integrative doctors recommend supplementation, with liposomal formulations of vitamin C considered the most bioavailable.

Enlist vitamin E to help prevent COPD

Like vitamin C, vitamin E can help reduce the odds of developing COPD.

In a ten-year population-based trial of over 38,000 women, the scientists concluded that taking 600 IU of vitamin E a day significantly reduced the risk of lung disease.  You can ramp up your intake of vitamin E with sunflower seeds, almonds, spinach and wheat germ oil.

Scientific review: Proper nutrition linked with milder COPD symptoms

Overall, a healthy diet is associated with lower risk of COPD – along with better outcomes for those who develop the disease.  In research published in European Respiratory Review, the authors noted an association between fruit intake and significantly improved pulmonary function.

Antioxidant-rich fruits (along with vegetables, nuts and seeds) are a virtual treasure trove of micronutrients and flavonoids that are particularly helpful to COPD – including the aforementioned quercetin, zinc and vitamins A, C and E.

And, cruciferous vegetables like Brussels sprouts, arugula and broccoli not only trigger production of beneficial glutathione – but also contain sulforaphane, an anti-inflammatory plant compound that may help enhance the therapeutic effects of COPD medications.

If you are living with COPD, you may find that the twelve natural strategies listed above really can help you to “breathe easier.”

Sources for this article:

Top 10 Natural Cough and Lung Remedies

© 16th July 2020 GreenMedInfo LLC. This work is reproduced and distributed with the permission of GreenMedInfo LLC. Want to learn more from GreenMedInfo? Sign up for the newsletter here
Reproduced from original article:
Posted on:  Thursday, July 16th 2020
Written By:  GreenMedInfo Research Group
This article is copyrighted by GreenMedInfo LLC, 2020

If you’re feeling a tell-tale tickle in your throat that signifies a cough may be coming on, it’s time to stock up on the top 10 natural cough and lung remedies. You don’t need narcotic syrups or prescription medicines to start breathing easier today

For decades, the conventional way of managing a low-grade cough has been to take a medicated cough syrup. Whether obtained through a doctor’s prescription or purchased over the counter (OTC), cough syrups can contain potentially habit-forming ingredients that come with strong contraindications for many individuals.

Prescription cough syrups may contain the opiate narcotic codeine, known for its potential for abuse, while OTC cough medicines often use dextromethorphan (DXM) or promethazine as active ingredients, both potentially addictive sedative drugs.[i]

Medicated cough syrups must carry warnings to minors and pregnant or breastfeeding women. In addition, cough syrup labels warn of the dangers of overdose, which can require urgent medical attention.[ii]

As if that weren’t enough reason for pause, a total of 270 drugs are known to interact with dextromethorphan,[iii] and a whopping 683 drugs are known to interact with codeine/promethazine.[iv]

If you’re seeking a safer way to mitigate a scratchy throat and low-grade cough, look no further. We have compiled 10 of the top natural cough remedies that are safe (and even enjoyable) for young and old and everyone in between.

1. Ginger

Ginger root is a traditional medicinal herb that has been widely researched in modern times for treating more than 240 diseases. With natural antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, ginger is known for its ability to soothe nausea. It is also widely used in tribal herbal therapies for treatment of severe cough and cold symptoms.

There are many natural benefits of ginger: it flushes toxins from the body, improves the immune system and boosts energy with more than a dozen vitamins and trace minerals. Research into asthma cures found that ginger “significantly attenuated airway resistance,”[v] illustrating why upping your ginger intake may help you breathe easier.

Another benefit for improving coughs may come from ginger’s effectiveness at reducing stomach acid, a lesser-known precipitating factor in some coughs.

2. Moisture

Symptoms of a dry cough can onset when the weather turns cold and indoor heaters kick on, reducing humidity in the air. Coughs can be precipitated by this drier air as well as by trapped indoor dust particles causing irritation to the lungs.

Those living in warm, arid climates may experience cough symptoms such as these year-round. Rapid relief can come by reintroducing moisture back into your nose and throat through one or more of the following practices:

  • Use a humidifier. There are many sizes and styles of misters and humidifiers for the home, and it’s particularly useful to use one by your bed while you sleep. Moisture helps to open sinuses, allowing you to breathe easier while you rest.

Whether you choose warm steam or cool mist may depend on your climate, the time of year or season, as well as whether your cough is dry (no mucus) or productive (with phlegm). Dry coughs respond to cool or room temperature air, while congestion is often eased with warm steam.

Some misters allow use with essential oil drops, which can provide additional lung and sinus support. Herbs such as thyme, eucalyptus, peppermint and even oil blends specifically for sinuses can be readily obtained at most health food stores and herbal apothecaries.

  • Gargle with salt water. A dry, red throat will be much relieved after a soak with mild salt water. Stir between 1/4 and 1/2 teaspoon of natural mineral salt into warm, purified water. Gargle gently for up to 30 seconds and spit. Repeat two to three times in a session.
  • Steam bath. Place your head over a steaming bowl of water with a towel covering your head and trapping the steam inside. Inhale deeply for five or six breaths. Uncover your head and sit quietly, breathing normally for a minute or so. Repeat until the water cools down. You can add a few drops of therapeutic essential oils to the water for added support.

Finally, don’t neglect your direct water intake while recuperating. Drinking around 2 liters of purified water each day is a good rule of thumb to follow.

3. Thyme

Besides being a fragrant addition to many kitchen recipes, thyme is a potent aromatic herb that has many useful healing properties. Antimicrobial, antibacterial and antifungal, thyme has been studied as a therapeutic substance for more than 70 diseases, including bronchitis and asthma.

Thyme is considered a superhero in the world of gut health, but it’s thyme’s antispasmodic effects that make it useful as a cough suppressant.[vi] Studies show that treatment with thyme extract is more effective than placebo at reducing coughing fits due to bronchitis.[vii]

Available as an extract and often blended with oregano, thyme can be added to your regimen by taking it as a supplement or in a tea. Simply crush 1 to 2 teaspoons of fresh thyme into a cup, add 6 to 8 ounces of hot water and steep for two to three minutes. Strain and enjoy with raw honey, another wonderful way to soothe a sore throat and cough.

4. Honey

Honey is an ancient healing panacea that is also one of nature’s most perfect foods. When in its raw state, honey has high nutritional value and immense health benefits. Great for feeding beneficial bacteria as well as killing bad bacteria, honey is not only delicious, it’s full of amazing healing properties. And there’s a good chance you have some in your pantry right now.

During cough and flu season, honey is particularly useful to have around. In a double-blind controlled trial, a paste made of honey and coffee was more effective than steroids at treating persistent post-infectious cough, a cough that remains for weeks or months after a cold or upper respiratory infection.

In this study, honey out-performed prednisolone, a common cough prescription, and guaifenesin, the active ingredient in many cough syrup formulas such as Mucinex, Wal-Tussin and Geri-Tussin, among other brands.

If you’re all-in on honey, simply dissolve 1 to 2 tablespoons in hot (but not boiling) water and add your herbs and spices of choice. Coffee, tea and other fresh or dried herbs such as ginger, mint or chamomile can boost honey’s healing effects, not to mention the taste. Don’t forget a squeeze of lemon juice for a boost of vitamin C and extra anti-inflammatory effects.

Procuring local honey is best if you’re using honey to boost resistance to allergies and seasonal pollens. Honey can even boost your immunity to influenza, especially important during flu season. Always purchase honey in its raw state, as some brands contain added glycerin and heating honey can kill the active enzymes that are a vital part of honey’s healing properties.

5. Neti Pot

A neti pot is another useful tool from the traditional medicine cabinet. A neti pot refers to a specific type of container used to cleanse the sinus passages with warm saline solution. Popular in the Far East, the tradition of the neti pot has not been widely adopted in the U.S., although rising rates of seasonal allergy and the resultant irritated nose and throat may encourage more people to try this gentle, hygienic practice.

Neti pots can be purchased online and at most local pharmacies and they generally come with saline packs to add to distilled water (it’s important not to use tap water due to potentially dangerous contaminants). You can also make your own saline solution using around 16 ounces of water to 1 teaspoon of mineral salt.

Per the Mayo Clinic, “To use the neti pot, tilt your head sideways over the sink and place the spout of the neti pot in the upper nostril. Breathing through your open mouth, gently pour the saltwater solution into your upper nostril so that the liquid drains through the lower nostril. Repeat on the other side.”[viii]

6. Marshmallow Root

Marshmallow root, which comes from the plant Althaea officinalis, is a lesser known medicinal herb that has a lot of beneficial uses. Both the root and leaf of this perennial herb are used by traditional healers and herbalists to treat wounds and reduce infection, thanks to potent antibacterial properties.

When marshmallow root is processed, a thick, gummy substance called mucilage exudes from the plant, which, when mixed with water, creates a slick gel that has been used for centuries to coat the throat, stomach and skin to soothe irritation.

This sticky gum is also used in, you guessed it — marshmallows. At least, that’s how they were made before modern manufacturers substituted gelatin and other less wholesome substances.

Consumed as a tea, tincture or extract, marshmallow root has been used effectively to treat asthma, bronchitis, colds, sore throats and coughs.[ix] Marshmallow may be the herbal supplement that helps you slide right through cough season without a scratch.

7. Turmeric

One of the most therapeutic herbs available today is the golden-orange powdered spice turmeric. Explored for uses in treating more than 850 disease conditions, turmeric and its active ingredient, curcumin, are natural medicine’s golden child.

Turmeric has shown promise in treating lung disease and controlling asthma in children,[x] while curcumin has proven effective at attenuating inflamed airways and improving breathing function in both human[xi] and animal studies.[xii]

Besides taking turmeric or curcumin in supplement form, you can prepare a therapeutic beverage called golden milk that’s as delicious as it is soothing for dry, scratchy throats. Simply warm your milk of choice until it’s just below boiling and add a heaping tablespoon of turmeric and honey.

You can boost the flavor and potency of your cup by adding additional anti-inflammatory spices such as ginger, cardamom and black pepper.  We recommend avoiding dairy milk if you have a wet cough; try rice, almond, oat or coconut milk for a delicious plant-based alternative.

8. Eucalyptus

Known for its nose-clearing smell, eucalyptus is revered for its ability to soothe irritated sinuses and ease the lungs. Researched for healing properties such as the ability to reduce inflammation and pain, eucalyptus’s antibacterial properties may be one reason it’s used to treat upper respiratory infections.

A 2011 study tested a throat spray made with aromatic essential oils from five plants, including two types of eucalyptus. Results demonstrated that the eucalyptus spray brought about significant and immediate improvement in symptoms of upper respiratory ailment, including sore throat, hoarseness and cough.

Another great way to benefit from this soothing plant is to add drops of eucalyptus essential oil to a steam bath or home humidifier and breathe in the healing vapors while you sleep. If you have access to fresh eucalyptus leaves, consider crushing a few handfuls and adding them to a warm bath with magnesium-rich Epsom salts. Pure healing luxury!

9. Bromelain

Pineapple is an enzyme-rich tropical fruit with amazing healing properties, many of which are attributed to bromelain, a protein-digesting enzyme found in high concentration in pineapples. Extracts of bromelain are available in supplement form and may be highly effective at relieving a dry cough.

A potent anti-inflammatory, bromelain was shown to produce beneficial effects on asthma[xiii] in mice in multiple studies.[xiv] It was also used to good effect in a trial on children with acute sinusitis, with participants receiving bromelain experiencing a “statistically significant” faster rate of recovery from symptoms.

If you prefer the fruit to a supplement, pineapple is anti-mucogenic, which may have a positive effect on coughing symptoms.

10. Spiced Tea

Chai tea has become a popular drink in recent years, something that comes as no surprise to Ayurvedic medicine practitioners. Tea spiced with aromatic herbs and sweetened with honey is a traditional cough and sore throat remedy in India, and it’s a relaxing and delicious way to get relief and comfort no matter where you are.

You can formulate your own spiced tea by starting with a base of green, black or herbal tea, and including any of the following spices that are appealing to you. They all have anti-inflammatory properties, and several of these herbs, such as cloves, ginger and cayenne, have expectorant properties, which can help reduce phlegm associated with a productive cough.

For an extra kick, try adding a dash of cayenne pepper, especially if you want to treat a wet cough. Capsaicin, a compound found in chili peppers, has been shown to reduce chronic coughing. Don’t forget to add honey for the extra throat coat as well as to soothe the bite off this ultra-spicy therapeutic potion.


[i] American Addiction Centers, Codeine Addiction, Cough Syrup,

[ii], Treatment Options, Cough,

[iii], Treatment Options, Cough,,cough-syrup-dm.html

[iv], Treatment Options, Cough, codeine/promethazine,

[v] Effects of Ginger and Its Constituents on Airway Smooth Muscle Relaxation and Calcium Regulation, Townsend et al, Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013 Feb; 48(2): 157-163. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2012-0231OC. PMID: 23065130

[vi] Jonas Engelbertz, Tatjana Schwenk, Ute Kinzinger, Detlef Schierstedt, Eugen J Verspohl. Thyme extract, but not thymol, inhibits endothelin-induced contractions of isolated rat trachea. Zentralbl Gynakol. 2000;122(11):561-5. PMID: 18729040

[vii] Kemmerich B. Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of dry extracts of thyme herb and primrose root in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57(9):607‐615. doi:10.1055/s-0031-1296656. PMID: 17966760

[viii] Mayo Clinic, Diseases and Conditions, Common Cold, Expert Answers, Neti Pot, Can it clear your nose?

[ix] Penn State Hershey, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Health Information Library, Marshmallow,

[x] J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Jun 28 ;238:111882. Epub 2019 Apr 13. PMID: 30991137

[xi] J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Aug ;8(8):HC19-24. Epub 2014 Aug 20. PMID: 25302215

[xii] Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2015 May ;42(5):520-9. PMID: 25739561

[xiii] Cell Immunol. 2005 Sep;237(1):68-75. Epub 2005 Dec 6. PMID: 16337164

[xiv] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Mar;5(1):61-9. PMID: 18317550

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of GreenMedInfo or its staff.

Eight Reasons to Consume Bee Propolis

© 11th June 2020 GreenMedInfo LLC. This work is reproduced and distributed with the permission of GreenMedInfo LLC. Want to learn more from GreenMedInfo? Sign up for the newsletter here
Reproduced from original article:

Posted on: Saturday, June 6th 2020 at 3:45 pm

Bee propolis, a natural resin sourced from honeybees, hosts numerous health benefits thanks to its antiseptic, antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we’ve outlined eight of the main benefits of consuming bee propolis

Bee propolis, a kind of “bee glue” or resinous substance used by bees to protect against fungus and seal holes or cracks in the hive, is garnering more attention in the health and wellness community thanks to a growing body of research highlighting its therapeutic benefits.[i],[ii]

Composed mainly of resin and wax, bee propolis is full of phenolic compounds, esters and 12 different kinds of flavonoids that contribute to its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties.[iii] If you’ve never tried bee propolis, here are eight excellent examples of why you should consider adding bee propolis products into your routine and diet:

1. Bee Propolis Protects Against the Common Cold

Research has shown that due to the antimicrobial properties of bee propolis, it may be useful in relieving symptoms and shortening the duration of the common cold.[iv] Additionally, parents may use propolis as a supplement for preventing colds and flu-like illnesses in children, as it has immune-activating properties and has been shown to reduce the likelihood of colds in children.[v],[vi],[vii]

2. Bee Propolis Fights Upper Respiratory Infections in Children and Adults

The antimicrobial effects of propolis have been shown to effectively fight several strains of bacteria in patients with upper respiratory infections.[viii] Researchers believe that bee propolis could be used as a natural antibacterial therapy to prevent upper respiratory infections in both children and adults.[ix]

3. Bee Propolis Has Antifungal Properties

Researchers have studied the antifungal effects of propolis on onychomycosis, a common nail infection caused by fungus that causes nails to weaken and become brittle or ragged.[x],[xi]

Conventional treatment methods for onychomycosis include medications that often cause severe side effects or interact with other medications, causing the patient to stop treatment.[xii] Because researchers have demonstrated the effective topical antifungal properties of bee propolis, many believe that it could be used as a less expensive remedy for onychomycosis without adverse effects.[xiii]

Researchers have also studied the effects of propolis against 40 yeast strains of the Candida fungus, demonstrating that propolis is effective in inhibiting the growth of these common fungi.[xiv] Common candida infections include oral thrush and vaginal yeast infections, both of which have been shown to benefit from propolis-based topical treatments.[xv],[xvi],[xvii]

4. Bee Propolis May Protect Against Cancer

Propolis contains a substance called caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which activates DNA damage signaling in cancer cells, making it a potent antitumor therapy in the treatment and prevention of cancer.[xviii],[xix]

In fact, some researchers believe propolis may be as effective as chemotherapy or conventional chemopreventative drugs, without the adverse side effects associated with chemotherapy.[xx]

5. Antidiabetic Properties of Bee Propolis

A heterogeneous disease caused by insulin secretion or action defects, diabetes mellitus is one of the more common chronic diseases affecting Americans today.[xxi] In various studies, bee propolis extract effectively reduced hyperglycemic and oxidative stress associated with hyperglycemia and had ameliorating effects on cardiovascular health in diabetic subjects.[xxii],[xxiii]

Royal jelly, a healing secretion of bees intended for their nourishment, also has potent anti-diabetic qualities and significantly lowers blood sugar levels and oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia.[xxiv]

6. Bee Propolis Offers Neuroprotective Benefits

Propolis has inhibitory effects against neuronal cell death, possibly preventing the onset of several neurodegenerative and ischemic disorders.[xxv] This may be due to propolis’ effects on oxidative stress, which is believed to be the underlying pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia.[xxvi],[xxvii]

7. Bee Propolis as a Potential Gastrointestinal Treatment

The cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of CAPE, an ester contained in bee propolis, make it an excellent potential therapy in the treatment and prevention of gastric cancers.[xxviii] Additional gastrointestinal benefits of propolis include treatment and prevention of ulcerative colitis, probably due to its antioxidant, antiulcer and anti-inflammatory properties.[xxix]

8. Bee Propolis for Dermatology and Skin Care

Bee propolis has been studied for its topical effects on a variety of skin conditions, including burn treatment, wound healing, insect bites, UV-induced photodamage, oral infections and sores, and the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory nature of bee propolis makes it a popular ingredient in many natural cosmetic products.[xxx],[xxxi],[xxxii],[xxxiii],[xxxiv]

Propolis has also been tested for its effects on acne. Conventional antibiotic treatments for this follicular skin disease have become less effective due to the rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of Propionibacterium acnes, but researchers have demonstrated that natural antimicrobial extracts such as propolis seem to effectively reduce redness and lessen scarring.[xxxv]

Safety Concerns Associated With Bee Propolis

Oral or topical use of bee propolis can cause allergic reactions, especially in individuals allergic to honey bee or other bee stings or to asthmatic individuals, with allergies presenting as contact dermatitis or oral mucositis.[xxxvi],[xxxvii]

Nevertheless, researchers believe that while there is a chance for allergic reaction and the exact dosage of propolis has yet to be determined, there is vast potential for the use of this natural and promising substance for those without allergies.[xxxviii],[xxxix]

For more information and additional research studies, please visit the research database on bee propolis and other bee products such as honey and bee venom


[i] Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017: 1259510.

[ii] J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Jun-Aug; 5(3): 308-311.

[iii] Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017: 1259510.

[iv] Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2013; 2013: 308249.

[v] Rom J Virol. 1995 Jul-Dec;46(3-4):115-33.

[vi] J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Jun-Aug; 5(3): 308-311.

[vii] Am J Chin Med. 2005;33(2):231-40.

[viii] Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Aug;43(8):921-3.

[ix] J Chemother. 2006 Apr;18(2):164-71.

[x] Version 1. F1000Res. 2019; 8: F1000 Faculty Rev-968.

[xi] Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 779.

[xii] Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 779.

[xiii] Front Microbiol. 2018; 9: 779.

[xiv] J Med Food. 2011 Jan-Feb;14(1-2):128-34. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.0296. Epub 2010 Dec 4.

[xv] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 287693.

[xvi] Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005 May;89(2):127-32.

[xvii] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 351062.

[xviii] Integr Cancer Ther. 2018 Sep; 17(3): 867-873.

[xix] Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2012 Apr 24;50(1):25-37. doi: 10.2478/18693.

[xx] Integr Cancer Ther. 2018 Sep;17(3):867-873. doi: 10.1177/1534735417753545. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

[xxi] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 5439645.

[xxii] Clin Biochem. 2005 Feb;38(2):191-6.

[xxiii] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 5439645.

[xxiv] Masataka Nomura, Naomi Maruo, Yoshito Zamami, Shingo Takatori, Shima Doi, Hiromu Kawasaki. [Effect of long-term treatment with royal jelly on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats]Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007 Nov ;127(11):1877-82. PMID: 17978564

[xxv] J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Oct 8;56(19):8944-53. doi: 10.1021/jf8014206. Epub 2008 Sep 12.

[xxvi] Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017: 7984327.

[xxvii] Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018; 2018: 7074209.

[xxviii] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018; 2018: 2035820.

[xxix] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018; 2018: 2035820.

[xxx] Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016; 2016: 8473937.

[xxxi] Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017: 1259510.

[xxxii] Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 May; 8(5): 125.

[xxxiii] Burns Trauma. 2015; 3: 9.

[xxxiv] Molecules. 2020 Jan 28;25(3). pii: E556. doi: 10.3390/molecules25030556.

[xxxv] Clin Pharmacol. 2018; 10: 175-181.

[xxxvi] Drug Saf. 2008;31(5):419-23.

[xxxvii] J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2011 Oct-Dec; 3(4): 479-495.

[xxxviii] Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2013; 2013: 308249.

[xxxix] Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017: 1259510.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of GreenMedInfo or its staff.

New strain of coronavirus currently “as deadly as the Spanish flu epidemic,” expert warns

Reproduced from original article:

by:  February 1, 2020

coronavirus(NaturalHealth365) One look at the harrowing images coming out of China is enough to leave all of us with the same question on our minds: what is coronavirus?

mysterious, pneumonia-like illness is spreading around the world, and experts are anticipating this epidemic to be “as deadly as the Spanish flu epidemic” of 1918, which killed an astounding 50 million people.  Stick with us to learn more about this worrisome disease and why you should consider natural remedies like vitamin C and vitamin D as part of your family’s virus prevention plan.

World Health Organization: Wuhan coronavirus epidemic poses a “high” global threat level

In late December 2019, the first cases of a strange and potentially deadly pneumonia-like illness were diagnosed in the central Chinese city of Wuhan. The illnesses – signs of which include fever, cough, breathing trouble, and sudden fainting and collapse – were found to be caused by a mutating strain of a virus called coronavirus, or 2019-nCoV. Its origin is hypothesized to be from a wet market in the Asian city of 11 million.

As of this writing, the death toll from 2019-nCoV has climbed to over 300 people, with 14,000 plus confirmed cases in at least 19 countries, including Australia, Cambodia, Philippines, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, the United Arab Emirates, the United States, and Vietnam (for real-time updates, check out this resource).

Just note: “Official” numbers are always downplayed for obvious business reasons.

In a heavily criticized move, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently stopped short of declaring this outbreak an international health emergency.  Had they done so, it would be easier for global leaders to launch a concerted effort to prevent an epidemic. Failure to declare an emergency may delay care and put even more global citizens in the path of this potentially deadly illness.

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Only time will still tell if the international agency will change their stance on the severity of the outbreak. In the meantime, the WHO has conceded that they made a mistake in its risk assessment of the mysterious illness, and have upgraded the threat level from “moderate” to “high” at both the regional and global level (including “very high” in China).

Protect yourself and your loved ones from the flu with these 3 natural remedies

Reports from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that deaths from seasonal flu-like illnesses are increasing, and have been for some time. With the outbreak of this new mutating virus, it seems more important than ever to protect yourself and your loved ones from illnesses.

Here are 3 ways to keep your immune system health and strong:

  1. Take vitamin C: We know that a vitamin C deficiency has been linked to pneumonia.  On the flip side, getting a sufficient amount of vitamin C can boost immune health and may help people avoid falling ill with flu-like illnesses.  It’s no surprise that the Cebu City Health Office of the Phillipines recently advised people (after the arrival of a 5-year-old boy into the country who tested positive for coronavirus) to take vitamin C.  According to Mayo Clinic, the recommended daily intake of vitamin C for adults is about 65 to 90 milligrams (mg) a day.  But, that’s way too low to help avoid the threat of viral infections.  In many cases, supplementation is a must … but, foods rich in vitamin C include kale, broccoli, peppers, kiwifruit, and citrus.
  2. Take vitamin D: Studies, including a 2017 study published in BMJ, show that vitamin D supplements can bolster people against colds, flus, and other types of respiratory infections. It’s understood – by many integrative healthcare providers – that vitamin D boosts the levels of antimicrobial substances in the lungs called antimicrobial peptides.  The minimum recommended intake for vitamin D is around 400 – 800 International Units (IU) per day, but most studies show that increasing your intake to 1,000 to 2,000 IU/day (or more) is safe and beneficial.  Keep in mind, to get the best absorption rate, it’s best to take a vitamin D supplement that offers the essential cofactors such as, vitamin K2, boron, zinc and magnesium – to name a few.  In addition, foods rich in vitamin D include wild-caught fatty fish and pasture-raised (organic) eggs.
  3. Get enough sleep: Even just one night of sleep deprivation – getting less than the recommended 6 – 8 hours – has been shown to lower a person’s immune function and increase their risk of falling ill with a communicable disease.  To avoid the threat of viral infections, make a commitment with your loved ones that you’ll all prioritize your sleep and practice good sleep hygiene techniques.

Obviously, it’s always a good idea to minimize your exposure to toxic chemicals, unwanted amounts of mental and emotional stress and eat an organic diet rich in antioxidants to support a strong immune system.

The Wuhan coronavirus outbreak is an actively developing story. Stay tuned for future updates on this flu-like epidemic and other major health news at NaturalHealth365.

Sources for this article include:


Written by Brenton Wight, Health Researcher, LeanMachine
Copyright © Brenton Wight, LeanMachine
Updated 31st January 2020

Candida albicans, also known as Yeast infections, Fungal infections, Mycosis and Thrush

Almost everyone has Candida in their bodies. For most of us, it causes no problems.
But if our immune system is compromised by antibiotics, poor diet, sleep deprivation or other factors, candida can grow uncontrollably.
Each of us has about 70 to 100 or more trillion bacteria in our bodies, weighing between 1 and 2kg, or over 3% of our total body weight.
Most of them good, but some are bad – really bad, like yeast, parasites and other organisms, and most of the time we don’t know they are even there.
If we are healthy with a good diet, our immune system and the good bugs keeps the bad bugs under control. We can never eliminate them, but we can keep them at levels where they can’t do too much harm.
75% of our immune system is in the gut – our trillions of good bacteria is our second, but most important line of defence against unwelcome invaders.
Our first line of defence is in the mouth, and this is where our good bacteria first start to knock out the bad guys, and this is why sugar should be banned from our diet, as sugar keeps the bad bugs fed well.
Healthy gut flora keeps candida under control, because in it’s normal state, Candida is a relatively weak fungal type bug.
Unfortunately, under some conditions, Candida can transform into dangerous mutations, changing to an aggressive bug which can cause systemic (throughout the entire body) destruction.
Candida is very common, and very dangerous.
75% of women, and many men, suffer from Candida in some form at some stage, from minor symptoms including rashes, increased PMS issues and bad breath, to severe conditions like IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), depression, joint pain, and chronic fatigue syndrome.
A Candida problem can be a host of apparently unrelated chronic symptoms which refuse to go away, regardless of treatments, and a course of antibiotics only makes things much worse.

Mainstream Medicine Mistakes

In the 1980’s links were found between candida, chronic fatigue, chronic pain problems and fibromyalgia-type symptoms.
Mainstream health professionals have little idea how to diagnose, let alone treat Candida issues, and those who do attempt to treat Candida use dangerous medications which often exacerbate the situation by destroying our good bacteria, leaving us defenseless against the bad guys.
Creams, oils, lotions, etc are only marginally effective on the skin where applied, and cannot resolve systemic, body-wide infestations.
The “nuke it” approach, with powerful anti-fungal prescription medications, can work temporarily, but Candida is smart enough to disguise itself and eventually develop resistance to the medication.
Drugs used for other purposes such as antibiotics, cortisone therapy, immune-suppressants, even birth control pills can start a Candida infestation explosion.
Candida critters are very smart.
Classified as a fungus, but are in fact part plant, part animal, part bacteria, part parasite, and able to reproduce themselves either sexually (with a mate) or asexually (by themselves), and by re-arranging their own chromosomes, can alter their shape and forms to adapt to the environment and ensure survival.
No surprise that with these attributes, it can be very difficult to dispose of yeast infections!

How Candida Works

In the normal, relatively harmless yeast form, under the microscope, Candida looks like a small white egg, with a smooth and consistent shape and living in our gut.
Candida feeds on the food we eat and normally keeps to itself, but under some conditions, it mutates into a monster super-fungus, multiplying rapidly to colonise in every possible part of the body.
In some areas it can double the colony size every hour, so before long it runs rampant, destroying everything in it’s path.
The best way to start this happening is to feed it it’s favourite food – sugar!

Candida Symptoms

  • White coating on the tongue
  • Development of food sensitivities
  • Aches and pains without a known cause
  • Bloating, constipation or diarrhea
  • Persistent fatigue
  • Dry or other skin problems
  • Vaginitis (inflammation of the female genital area)
  • Breathing problems

Mutated Forms

The mutated form called mycelial-form of Candida grows rhixoids, which are elongated, finger-like tentacles that tunnel, bore and burrow their way through our gut walls, where they enter the blood vessels, to be transported everywhere in the body, blooming to a systemic infection.
They now appear anywhere – heart, eyes, kidneys, liver, lungs and even the brain. A yeast infection is not just a minor annoyance causing a little itching – this is a warning sign that some insidious thing is happening.
Like tree roots which can crack, lift and eventually destroy pavement, Candida does the same thing to our bodies as it mutates into the dangerous super-fungus form. Apart from entering the blood through the cracks in our gut and spreading, another opportunity is now “opened up” – many other undesirable things now enter our blood stream through these cracks; things which should normally stay in our gut: Bacteria, toxins, undigested food, milk, etc.

A short note about Milk

This is a good reason why no-one should ever drink homogenised milk, as the fat globules in homogenised milk are ten times smaller than un-homogenised milk, easily entering the blood through the tiniest holes in the gut.
When undigested milk enters the bloodstream directly through a “leaky gut”, the body’s own immune system recognises this as a unwanted invader and attempts to destroy it. From that time on, the immune system remembers this pattern, and we then have a milk allergy.
Leaky gut is the main culprit for the rapid rise in allergies we have seen in the last few decades, as we are now allergic to every food that passes directly into the blood.
We can find unhomogenised milk at all good supermarkets if we look hard enough, but none of the major brands make it.
Sure we have to shake the container to mix the cream, but that is a small price to pay for our better health, and I should also mention that we should never buy low-fat or skim milk, as all of the nutrients, including CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) and Omega-7, have been lost with the cream.
The “Low Fat” advertising is a gimmick. We lose weight more effectively with full-cream milk compared to low-fat milk.
Milk also contains lactose. Like most other things ending in “ose”, lactose is a sugar, and sugar feeds candida (and cancers).
Again, milk fills a complete chapter in my upcoming book, so I’ll leave a summary: Most people do better without milk, have less allergies without milk, lose more weight without milk, have stronger bones without milk, but if you have to have milk, FULL-CREAM and UN-HOMOGENISED milk is the only reasonably healthy milk to buy, and if you can get it straight from the cow (NON-PASTEURISED), even better.

Candida Waste Products

Candida overgrowth can make us feel sick, tired, plain lousy, and can make us drunk from inside out!
As yeast dies as part of it’s natural life cycle, acetaldehyde is released. This is a toxin which the liver converts to ethanol, the same hangover-causing chemical produced by high consumption of alcohol, so Candida sufferers often feel like they have a hangover without drinking a drop of alcohol, because they have an alcohol factory in their own body.
Another problem, as if we don’t have enough problems already, is “Candida Poo”, which is the 79 distinct toxins and waste by-products released as part of the Candida lifecycle. It’s bad enough that we feed all parasites, but we have to clean up and dispose of their waste and toxic elements as well as recover from the damage and disease they cause!
Candida infestation can continue growing, producing more acetaldehyde, causing our blood alcohol level to rise enough to cause symptoms such as impaired thinking, lack of concentration, irritability, depression, brain fog, slowed reflexes, fatigue and other signs of excess alcohol.
In this state, red blood cells have trouble flowing into small capillaries, aggravating migraine headaches, fatigue, muscle aches, slowing healing.
At the same time, white blood cells have reduced ability to fight infection, often causing allergies, rashes, acne and even further inhibiting of healing processes.
Like the way bread rises from yeast because of carbon dioxide released from carbohydrate fermentation, Candida builds up carbon dioxide in the intestine, resulting in excess gas, bloating, and yet another waste product for the over-taxed body to dispose of.

The Real Candida Cause

Can we defeat this little terror? Of course we can, but we must get back to basics to eliminate problems once and for all.
Why do we get Candida in the first place? Everyone has Candida, because we can’t help consuming it from food, water and the environment, but the reason it develops is because our body gets out of balance, and our immune system gets compromised, allowing immediate, almost uncontrollable flourishing of Candida.
We cannot destroy Candida completely without killing ourselves, so our only real, long-lasting solution is to re-balance the body, restore the immune system, and let the body’s own natural defenses do their job.
If we have bad breath, rashes, fatigue, trouble concentrating, brain fog, strange allergies, weird pains or anything we can’t explain, it could be a sign that something is out of whack, allowing Candida to get out of control, and even if the problem is not Candida, correcting the balance and immune system of the body is the first step to recovery from any sickness.

Candida and Cancer

New research is now finding a link between Candida infections and Cancer. While billions of dollars are being spent on cancer research, cancer cases are increasing, now overtaking cardiovascular issues as a leading cause of death. LeanMachine suggests that staying Candida free is the first step in staying Cancer free. Like most modern diseases, prevention is the key, then requiring no cure.

The Cure

We must create an environment which is good for nourishment of the body, but bad for Candida. By following these guidelines, we will remain Candida free, and also reduce the risk of Cancer, Diabetes, Alzheimer’s, and most other “modern” diseases.

  • Eliminate all sugar from the diet. The natural sweetener Xylitol is OK as it is a 5-carbon sugar alcohol, and despite it’s misleading name (it is technically neither a sugar, nor an alcohol), it will not feed Candida, and has far less insulin-spiking effect. Other alternatives are Erythritol and Stevia, with virtually zero insulin spiking. Avoid all artificial sweeteners. In the long term, lose the sweet-tooth altogether
  • Change to an alkaline-forming diet, as acids cause Candida and other parasites to thrive. See my Alkaline Diet Article
  • Avoid yeast in all forms. All grain/flour based products will acidify and aggravate our bodies, and are usually made with yeast, the best food for Candida. No more bread, cakes, biscuits, muffins, etc. Tough for some people but you will thank me a few weeks! Excess weight will slowly disappear, while digestion, health and energy will all improve, and the holes in the gut caused by flour products will begin to heal
  • Keep cool and dry, wear well-ventilated clothing and live in a well-ventilated house. Candida loves sugar, warmth and moisture. Avoid artificial fibres in clothing. Keep to natural fibres like cotton, bamboo or wool. Before buying any clothing, give it a sniff. Any trace of a chemical smell? Leave it in the store
  • Never take antibiotics unless there is a severe, life-threatening situation. Antibiotics encourage Candida and other harmful organisms by destroying their natural enemies (the good bacteria)
  • Reduce carbohydrate intake, as all carbs feed Candida. This means potatoes, pasta, grains, cereals, breads, cakes, etc. A healthy body requires NONE of these “foods”. There is NO medical condition such as “Carbohydrate Deficiency” as the body can make all the carbs it needs from breaking down protein
  • Take liver detox supplements such as Milk Thistle
  • Add some parsley to each meal. Easy to grow yourself in a pot, and available at the greengrocer or supermarket
  • Take a supplement containing Pau D’Arco or Candida Support
  • The main ingredient in Pau d’Arco is beta-lapachone, also a potent catalyst for NADH (Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, or NAD+ or CoEnzyme E1), important for mitochondria, the energy components of every cell in the body and as a sensor for stress and disease
  • Also consider Pumpkin Seed Oil for more parasite protection
  • Most kitchens have cloves in the spice rack. Add them to everything to help control Candida and other parasites, and add a great flavour at the same time
  • Berberine has anti-inflammatory, immune-enhancing, anti-microbial properties against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi. Berberine’s action against Candida pathogens is stronger than prescription antibiotics commonly used
  • Echinacea is also of benefit in building the immune system
  • Aloe contains a mucopolysaccharide with strong immune properties and also benefits the mitochondria
  • Take a probiotic supplement such as Acidophilus or at least eat some yogurt every day to help re-build the good gut flora
  • Try to use a probiotic that includes a FOS (fructo-oligosaccharides), a pre-biotic that enhances functionality of gut flora, included in Acidophilus above
  • Fermented foods – sauerkraut, etc are a good source of probiotics, generally much more than available in supplements
  • Eat more high-fibre foods like chia seeds, preferably containing over 40 grams of fibre daily
  • Or take a daily fibre supplement containing Psyllium to improve regularity, keep things moving through the colon, improve internal cleansing and reduce risk of colon cancer. Can help relieve constipation, but because it increases bulk with both soluble and insoluble fibre, may also help with diarrhoea
  • Eat some garlic every day, or at least onions or shallots, but if the taste and odour is not to your liking, then try Odorless Garlic
  • To help cleanse the blood and the liver, eat Chlorophyll-rich foods (Green leafy vegetables) every day, or take Chlorophyll supplements. The molecular structure of Chlorophyll and Haemoglobin appear identical, apart from one small difference: Haemoglobin has a central iron atom (making blood red), while Chlorophyll has a central magnesium atom (making plants green)
  • Coconut Oil contains Caprylic Acid, along with capric acid and lauric acid, MCT (Medium Chain Triglycerides) that help defeat candida as it is a natural anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-bacterial product, and also helps lose weight, as MCT’s go straight to the liver to be burned as fuel and cannot be stored as fat
  • Avoid antibiotics, steroid hormones and oral contraceptives, as they alter the gut bacteria, increasing risk of candida changing into an invasive form
  • Avoid antibiotics in food such as from animals raised in concentrated animal feeding operations which are fed antibiotics to counteract bad sanitation and to boost growth. Ask for “grass fed” or “pasture raised” meat, and limit meat consumption (acidic) in favour of plant foods (alkaline)
  • Get more good sleep, more exercise and an alkaline, sugar-free diet, but never consume food or drink with aspartame or other artificial sweeteners, which destroy good gut bacteria. Stevia is a better natural choice and has anti-cancer properties
  • Treat the partners of infected patients, even if there are no symptoms, as they can also be carrying abnormally large amounts of Candida, potentially leading to constant cross-infections
  • Continue treatment until all symptoms have disappeared, plus a further 2 weeks, which destroys eggs laid by the previous generation

Drug Therapy

There are some prescription drugs which can help if all of the above fails and the condition is serious:

  • Nystatin, an antifungal, available as tablets or a powder, and fairly benign with few side effects.
  • Diflucan, an antibiotic if all else fails

Updated: 31st January 2020.   Copyright © 1999-2020 Brenton Wight – Lean Machine

Can Herbal Medicines Fight Wuhan Coronavirus?

© 29th January 2020 GreenMedInfo LLC. This work is reproduced and distributed with the permission of GreenMedInfo LLC. Want to learn more from GreenMedInfo? Sign up for the newsletter here
Reproduced from original article:

Posted on: Wednesday, January 29th 2020 at 12:00 pm

Originally published on

Research over the past two decades shows that certain herbal medicines can fight the new Wuhan coronavirus contagion. Let’s review the evidence showing that certain plant medicines can fight similar viral infections such as SARS, MERS and Ebola, and why this can also apply to the Wuhan coronavirus

Let’s review some of the current science on this coronavirus infection. Then we can discuss what plant medicines can offer.

Latest on the Wuhan coronavirus

The SARS-like coronavirus that appears to have originated in Wuhan, China has now infected thousands of people. As of January 28, 2020, Chinese officials have confirmed over 6,000 cases. These have occurred in every province of China with the exception of Tibet. As of the 28th, 132 people have died from the virus.

To contain the coronavirus, nearly 50 million people have been quarantined. Quarantine areas include Wuhan and 15 other nearby cities in the region of Hubei province. The Centers for Disease Control said they are monitoring 73 possible infections in 26 states in the United States as of the 28th of January. None of these cases have revealed any person-to-person transmission in the U.S.

Investigators are suspecting that the virus originated at the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. The market’s vendors have been selling live or butchered animals in addition to fish and other marine life.

What is the nCoV-2019?

The virus has been officially named nCoV-2019 (or 2019-nCoV) coronavirus as of now.

Sequencing of the virus has determined it to be 75 to 80 percent match to SARS-CoV and 85 percent plus similar to multiple coronaviruses found in bats.

SARS stands for severe acute respiratory syndrome. It is also a coronavirus, or CoV.

Researchers from the Wuhan Institute of Virology published a paper on January 23, 2020. Their paper informs that nCoV-2019 has a 96 percent genome match with a bat coronavirus.

They also stated that nCoV-2019 utilizes the same cell entry receptor as the SARS-CoV of 2002-2004. The receptor is ACE2. We’ll discuss the importance of this later.

It has yet been determined whether the infection is as lethal as SARS. SARS is another outbreak that began in China in 2002, infecting people through 2004. More than 700 people died worldwide of SARS.

A study published on January 24 from University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital in Shenzhen studied six patients of nCoV-2019. They also determined that the virus was most similar to a SARS coronavirus found in Chinese horseshoe bats.

nCoV-2019 symptoms and transmission

These and other researchers have determined that nCoV-2019 is transmitted from person to person when a person comes into contact with the secretions of an infected person. This means the virus is transmitted via the following means:

  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Shaking hands
  • Touching infected object then touching eyes, mouth or nose
  • Handling the waste of an infected person

Symptoms of nCoV-2019 include:

The elderly and young children are most at risk from the infection. This is similar to SARS, though it appears nCoV-2019 is less lethal than SARS and MERS. About 15 to 20 percent of cases can become severe. The lethal rate is about 1 in 10 according to doctors.

The nCoV-2019 virus, just as was SARS and MERS, is an enveloped virus. This means the virus is protected by a glycoprotein shell. This is why these viruses are so difficult to treat.

Red algae for SARS and MERS coronavirus

A few years ago we published research showing that an extract from red algae – called Griffithsin – can fight SARS and MERS infections. Red algae Griffithsin has also proven to be antiviral against HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus), HSV-2 (Herpes simplex virus), HCV (Hepatitis C) and the Ebola virus.

What do these viruses have in common? Along with nCoV-2019, they all have glycoprotein shells around them. According to doctors at the University of California at Davis:

“Griffithsin is a marine algal lectin that exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity by binding oligomannose glycans on viral envelope glycoproteins.”

The researchers are discussing what is also called a mannose-binding lectin. Mannose-binding lectins have been shown to penetrate and break down the shells that surround this class of viruses – which includes nCoV-2019 virus.

The red algae extract above was found in the Griffithsia species of red algae. This is not the only species of red algae that contains mannose-binding lectins.

Another mannose-binding lectin found to be antiviral against these viruses is the Scytonema varium red algae, also called Scytovirin. Another one was found in the Nostoc ellipsosporum algae species – called Cyanovirin-N.

A 2019 study from France’s Institut de Recherche et Développement tested a number of other species, and found the Ulva pertusa algae species contained lectins that fight these viruses. They also found the Oscillatoria agardhii blue-green algae halt replication of these viruses.

A 2016 study from the University of Louisville School of Medicine also studied Griffithsin and found it also inhibited SARS-CoV as well as HIV and similar viruses. The researchers wrote:

“These findings support further evaluation of GRFT [Griffithsin] for pre-exposure prophylaxis against emerging epidemics for which specific therapeutics are not available, including systemic and enteric infections caused by susceptible enveloped viruses.”

Studies have found that these mannose-binding lectins break down the glycoprotein shells of the viruses mentioned above, including Ebola and SARS. A number of animal tests and human cell laboratory tests have shown that these mannose-binding lectins are successful in halting replication of the virus.

In a study on mice with Ebola, researchers found that Griffithsin halted not only replication, but made mice immune to the virus. Similar results were found with SARS and MERS infections.

This means that Griffithsin – from red algae – should make an effective vaccine of sorts. Are researchers testing this?

It is currently unknown what scientists are studying. But often commercial focus is upon compounds that can be patented.

In the 2018 study from the University of California mentioned above, the researchers reviewed the technical ability to mass-produce Griffithsin, in this case, for HIV infections, using plants to produce the extract. They illustrated the end cost to be quite low:

“In this study, we conducted a technoeconomic analysis (TEA) of plant-produced Griffithsin manufactured at commercial launch volumes for use in HIV microbicides. Data derived from multiple non-sequential manufacturing batches conducted at pilot scale and existing facility designs were used to build a technoeconomic model using SuperPro Designer® modeling software. With an assumed commercial launch volume of 20 kg Griffithsin/year for 6.7 million doses of Griffithsin microbicide at 3 mg/dose, a transient vector expression yield of 0.52 g Griffithsin/kg leaf biomass, recovery efficiency of 70%, and purity of >99%, we calculated a manufacturing cost for the drug substance of $0.32/dose and estimated a bulk product cost of $0.38/dose assuming a 20% net fee for a contract manufacturing organization (CMO).”

This is the nature of treating disease with plant medicines: Plants are economical and productive on a large scale, as we know from food and herbal medicine production.

Licorice for SARS

Licorice root has been used for thousands of years for lung infections with similar symptoms as viral infections.

We have also published evidence that licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) can fight SARS and MERS CoV infections. Studies have found that licorice root extracts were able to reduce SARS and MERS-CoV replication.

A 2008 study from the UK’s Luton & Dunstable Hospital NHS Foundation Trust tested licorice root extracts against a number of viruses, including HIV and SARS. They found that the extract broken down the viral envelope and also boosted immune activity.

The researchers stated that their studies,

“revealed antiviral activity against HIV‐1, SARS related coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, arboviruses, vaccinia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.”

For the mechanisms, the researchers stated,

“Mechanisms for antiviral activity of Glycyrrhiza spp. include reduced transport to the membrane and sialylation of hepatitis B virus surface antigen, reduction of membrane fluidity leading to inhibition of fusion of the viral membrane of HIV‐1 with the cell, induction of interferon gamma in T‐cells, inhibition of phosphorylating enzymes in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and reduction of viral latency.”

Other plant lectins that fight these viruses

We have published other research evidence showing that mannose-binding lectins from other plants can also fight SARS-related viruses. A number of studies have shown that plants that contain mannose-binding lectins can significantly stimulate the immune system and help prevent a number of infections.

A 2007 study from The Netherlands’ University of Gent studied plant-derived mannose-binding lectins on SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronavirus and the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV).

The researchers studied known plant lectins from 33 different plants in the laboratory, using infected cells. The researchers wrote:

“A unique collection of 33 plant lectins with different specificities were evaluated. The plant lectins possessed marked antiviral properties against both coronaviruses with EC(50) values in the lower microgram/ml range (middle nanomolar range), being non-toxic (CC(50)) at 50-100 microg/ml. The strongest anti-coronavirus activity was found predominantly among the mannose-binding lectins.”

Of the 33 plants tested, 15 extracts inhibited replication of both coronaviruses. Those antiviral lectins were successful in inhibiting the replication of the viruses.

The 15 coronavirus-inhibiting plants were:

• Amaryllis (Hippeastrum hybrid)
• Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
• Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus)
• Red spider lily (Lycoris radiate)
• Leek (Allium porrum)
• Ramsons (Allium ursinum)
• Taro (Colocasia esculenta)
• Cymbidium orchid (Cymbidium hybrid)
• Twayblade (Listera ovata)
• Broad-leaved helleborine (Epipactis helleborine)
• Tulip (Tulipa hybrid)
• Black mulberry tree (Morus Nigra)
• Tabacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum)
• Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)


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Leroy EM, Baize S, Volchkov VE, Fisher-Hoch SP, Georges-Courbot MC, Lansoud-Soukate J, Capron M, Debré P, McCormick JB, Georges AJ. Human asymptomatic Ebola infection and strong inflammatory response. Lancet. 2000 Jun 24;355(9222):2210-5.

Albert RK, Connett J, Curtis JL, Martinez FJ, Han MK, Lazarus SC, Woodruff PG. Mannose-binding lectin deficiency and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2012;7:767-77. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S33714.

Ribeiro LZ, Tripp RA, Rossi LM, Palma PV, Yokosawa J, Mantese OC, Oliveira TF, Nepomuceno LL, Queiróz DA. Serum mannose-binding lectin levels are linked with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. J Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar;28(2):166-73.

Barton C, Kouokam JC, Lasnik AB, Foreman O, Cambon A, Brock G, Montefiori DC, Vojdani F, McCormick AA, O’Keefe BR, Palmer KE. Activity of and effect of subcutaneous treatment with the broad-spectrum antiviral lectin griffithsin in two laboratory rodent models. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(1):120-7. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01407-13.

Takebe Y, Saucedo CJ, Lund G, Uenishi R, Hase S, Tsuchiura T, Kneteman N, Ramessar K, Tyrrell DL, Shirakura M, Wakita T, McMahon JB, O’Keefe BR. Antiviral lectins from red and blue-green algae show potent in vitro and in vivo activity against hepatitis C virus. PLoS One. 2013 May 21;8(5):e64449. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064449.

Mori T, O’Keefe BR, Sowder RC 2nd, Bringans S, Gardella R, Berg S, Cochran P, Turpin JA, Buckheit RW Jr, McMahon JB, Boyd MR. Isolation and characterization of griffithsin, a novel HIV-inactivating protein, from the red alga Griffithsia spJ Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 11;280(10):9345-53.

Bokesch HR, O’Keefe BR, McKee TC, Pannell LK, Patterson GM, Gardella RS, Sowder RC 2nd, Turpin J, Watson K, Buckheit RW Jr, Boyd MR. A potent novel anti-HIV protein from the cultured cyanobacterium Scytonema varium. Biochemistry. 2003 Mar 11;42(9):2578-84.

Michelow IC, Lear C, Scully C, Prugar LI, Longley CB, Yantosca LM, Ji X, Karpel M, Brudner M, Takahashi K, Spear GT, Ezekowitz RA, Schmidt EV, Olinger GG. High-dose mannose-binding lectin therapy for Ebola virus infectionJ Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 15;203(2):175-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiq025.

O’Keefe BR, Giomarelli B, Barnard DL, Shenoy SR, Chan PK, McMahon JB, Palmer KE, Barnett BW, Meyerholz DK, Wohlford-Lenane CL, McCray PB Jr. Broad-spectrum in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of the antiviral protein griffithsin against emerging viruses of the family Coronaviridae. J Virol. 2010 Mar;84(5):2511-21. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02322-09. Epub 2009 Dec 23. Erratum in: J Virol. 2010 May;84(10):5456.

Vorup-Jensen T, Sørensen ES, Jensen UB, Schwaeble W, Kawasaki T, Ma Y, Uemura K, Wakamiya N, Suzuki Y, Jensen TG, Takahashi K, Ezekowitz RA, Thiel S, Jensenius JC. Recombinant expression of human mannan-binding lectinInt Immunopharmacol. 2001 Apr;1(4):677-87.

Singh RS, Thakur SR, Bansal P. Algal lectins as promising biomolecules for biomedical research. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2013 Jul 16.

Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, Balzarini J, Van Ranst M. Plant lectins are potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Res. 2007 Sep;75(3):179-87.

Falzarano D, de Wit E, Rasmussen AL, Feldmann F, Okumura A, Scott DP, Brining D, Bushmaker T, Martellaro C, Baseler L, Benecke AG, Katze MG, Munster VJ, Feldmann H. Treatment with interferon-α2b and ribavirin improves outcome in MERS-CoV-infected rhesus macaques. Nat Med. 2013 Oct;19(10):1313-7. doi: 10.1038/nm.3362.

Pu JY, He L, Wu SY, Zhang P, Huang X. Anti-virus research of triterpenoids in licorice. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013 Nov;29(6):673-9.

Fiore C, Eisenhut M, Krausse R, Ragazzi E, Pellati D, Armanini D, Bielenberg J. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza speciesPhytother Res. 2008 Feb;22(2):141-8.

Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, Chandra P, Rabenau H, Doerr HW. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet. 2003 Jun 14;361(9374):2045-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13615-X

Feng Yeh C, Wang KC, Chiang LC, Shieh DE, Yen MH, San Chang J. Water extract of licorice had anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Jul 9;148(2):466-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.04.040.

Gao DN, Zhang Y, Ren YB, Kang J, Jiang L, Feng Z, Qu YN, Qi QH, Meng X. Relationship of Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels with the Development of Sepsis: a Meta-analysis. Inflammation. 2014 Oct 17.

Chen M, Deng J, Su C, Li J, Wang M, Abuaku BK, Hu S, Tan H, Wen SW. Impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel exposure, and MBL/MASP-2 gene polymorphism upon susceptibility to tuberculosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 10. pii: S1201-9712(14)01626-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.08.010.

Hornum M, Bay JT, Clausen P, Melchior Hansen J, Mathiesen ER, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Garred P. High levels of mannose-binding lectin are associated with lower pulse wave velocity in uraemic patients. BMC Nephrol. 2014 Oct 4;15(1):162. doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-15-162.

Gravina LP, Crespo C, Giugno H, Sen L, Chertkoff L, Mangano A, Castaños C. Mannose-binding lectin gene modifier of cystic fibrosis phenotype in Argentinean pediatric patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2014 Aug 29. pii: S1569-1993(14)00173-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2014.07.012

Swale A, Miyajima F, Kolamunnage-Dona R, Roberts P, Little M, Beeching NJ, Beadsworth MB, Liloglou T, Pirmohamed M. Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Concentration, but Not Genotype, Is Associated With Clostridium difficile Infection Recurrence: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 15;59(10):1429-36. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu666.

Nedovic B, Posteraro B, Leoncini E, Ruggeri A, Amore R, Sanguinetti M, Ricciardi W, Boccia S. Mannose-binding lectin codon 54 gene polymorphism and vulvovaginal candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:738298. doi: 10.1155/2014/738298.

Miyakawa T, Hatano K, Miyauchi Y, Suwa Y, Sawano Y, Tanokura M. A secreted protein with plant-specific cysteine-rich motif functions as a mannose-binding lectin that exhibits antifungal activity. Plant Physiol. 2014 Oct;166(2):766-78. doi: 10.1104/pp.114.242636.

Auriti C, Prencipe G, Caravale B, Coletti MF, Ronchetti MP, Piersigilli F, Azzari C, Di Ciommo VM. MBL2 gene polymorphisms increase the risk of adverse neurological outcome in preterm infants: a preliminary prospective study. Pediatr Res. 2014 Aug 13. doi: 10.1038/pr.2014.118.

Luo J, Xu F, Lu GJ, Lin HC, Feng ZC. Low mannose-binding lectin (MBL) levels and MBL genetic polymorphisms associated with the risk of neonatal sepsis: An updated meta-analysis. Early Hum Dev. 2014 Oct;90(10):557-64. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2014.07.007.

Ibernon M, Moreso F, O’Valle F, Grinyo JM, Moral RG, Seron D. Low serum mannose-binding lectin levels are associated with inflammation and apoptosis in early surveillance allograft biopsies. Transpl Immunol. 2014 Sep;31(3):152-6. doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2014.07.001.

Justice JM, Sleasman JW, Lanza DC. Recalcitrant Rhinosinusitis, Innate Immunity, and Mannose-Binding Lectin. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2014 Jul 25. pii: 0003489414543680.

Song GG, Bae SC, Seo YH, Kim JH, Choi SJ, Ji JD, Lee YH. Meta-analysis of functional MBL polymorphisms. Associations with rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Z Rheumatol. 2014 Sep;73(7):657-64. doi: 10.1007/s00393-014-1408-x.

Swierzko AS, Szala A, Sawicki S, Szemraj J, Sniadecki M, Sokolowska A, Kaluzynski A, Wydra D, Cedzynski M. Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) in women with malignant and benign ovarian tumours. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014 Nov;63(11):1129-40. doi: 10.1007/s00262-014-1579-y.

Liu XH, Li Q, Zhang P, Su Y, Zhang XR, Sun Q. Serum mannose-binding lectin and C-reactive protein are potential biomarkers for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014 Sep;18(9):630-5. doi: 10.1089/gtmb.2014.0038.

Sildorf SM, Eising S, Hougaard DM, Mortensen HB, Skogstrand K, Pociot F, Johannesen J, Svensson J. Differences in MBL levels between juvenile patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings. Mol Immunol. 2014 Nov;62(1):71-6. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.06.001.

Herrera-Ramos E, López-Rodríguez M, Ruíz-Hernández JJ, Horcajada JP, Borderías L, Lerma E, Blanquer J, Pérez-González MC, García-Laorden MI, Florido Y, Mas-Bosch V, Montero M, Ferrer JM, Sorlí L, Vilaplana C, Rajas O, Briones M, Aspa J, López-Granados E, Solé-Violán J, de Castro FR, Rodríguez-Gallego C. Surfactant protein A genetic variants associate with severe respiratory insufficiency in pandemic influenza A virus infection. Crit Care. 2014 Jun 20;18(3):R127. doi: 10.1186/cc13934.

Tran HB, Ahern J, Hodge G, Holt P, Dean MM, Reynolds PN, Hodge S. Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 5;9(6):e98571. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098571. eCollection 2014.

Orsatti CL, Nahás EA, Nahas-Neto J, Orsatti FL, Linhares IM, Witkin SS. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Mol Immunol. 2014 Sep;61(1):23-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2014.05.003.

Longhi L, Orsini F, De Blasio D, Fumagalli S, Ortolano F, Locatelli M, Stocchetti N, De Simoni MG. Mannose-binding lectin is expressed after clinical and experimental traumatic brain injury and its deletion is protective. Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug;42(8):1910-8. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000399

Regente M, Taveira GB, Pinedo M, Elizalde MM, Ticchi AJ, Diz MS, Carvalho AO, de la Canal L, Gomes VM. A sunflower lectin with antifungal properties and putative medical mycology applications. Curr Microbiol. 2014 Jul;69(1):88-95. doi: 10.1007/s00284-014-0558-z.

Nonaka M, Imaeda H, Matsumoto S, Yong Ma B, Kawasaki N, Mekata E, Andoh A, Saito Y, Tani T, Fujiyama Y, Kawasaki T. Mannan-binding protein, a C-type serum lectin, recognizes primary colorectal carcinomas through tumor-associated Lewis glycans. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 1;192(3):1294-301. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203023.

van der Meer FJ, de Haan CA, Schuurman NM, Haijema BJ, Verheije MH, Bosch BJ, Balzarini J, Egberink HF. The carbohydrate-binding plant lectins and the non-peptidic antibiotic pradimicin A target the glycans of the coronavirus envelope glycoproteins. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Oct;60(4):741-9.

Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Pannecouque C, Van Damme E, Peumans W, Egberink H, Balzarini J, Van Ranst M. Plant lectins are potent inhibitors of coronaviruses by interfering with two targets in the viral replication cycle. Antiviral Res. 2007 Sep;75(3):179-87.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of GreenMedInfo or its staff.

More Health Benefits of Quercetin Revealed

Reproduced from original article:
Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola     Fact Checked image

January 27, 2020
quercetin benefits


  • Quercetin has been shown to combat inflammation and acts as a natural antihistamine. Several studies have highlighted quercetin’s ability to prevent and treat both the common cold and influenza
  • Another, less known benefit and use for quercetin includes the prevention and/or treatment of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, certain cancers, gout, arthritis and mood disorders
  • A review of quercetin’s effect on metabolic syndrome found it significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose when taken for at least eight weeks at a dosage of 500 milligrams per day or more
  • Other recent research found quercetin has a beneficial impact on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism
  • Quercetin also has the ability to trigger tumor regression by interacting with your DNA and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis (the programmed cell death of damaged cells)

Quercetin1 is an antioxidant flavonol found naturally in foods such as apples, plums, red grapes, green tea, elder flower and onions, just to name a few.2 According to a 2019 Market Watch report,3 the quercetin market is growing rapidly as its health benefits are becoming more widely known.

Quercetin has been shown to combat inflammation and acts as a natural antihistamine. In fact, its antiviral capacity appears to be the primary focus of many studies looking at quercetin’s benefits, and a number of studies have highlighted quercetin’s ability to prevent and treat both the common cold and influenza.4,5,6,7

But there are also other, less known benefits and uses for this supplement, including the prevention and/or treatment of:8

High blood pressure9 Cardiovascular disease10
Metabolic syndrome11 Certain kinds of cancer12
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)13 Gout14
Arthritis15 Mood disorders16
Longevity, thanks to its senolytic benefits (clearing out damaged and worn-out cells)17,18

Additionally, quercetin is also helpful for aluminum-induced neurodegenerative changes, such as those seen in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As noted in a 2016 study:19

“Administration of quercetin (10 mg/kg body wt/day) reduced aluminum (10 mg/kg body wt/day)-induced oxidative stress (decreased ROS production, increased mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity).

In addition, quercetin also prevents aluminum-induced translocation of cyt-c, and up-regulates Bcl-2, down-regulates Bax, p53, caspase-3 activation and reduces DNA fragmentation …

Further electron microscopic studies revealed that quercetin attenuates aluminum-induced mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae and chromatin condensation. These results indicate that treatment with quercetin may represent a therapeutic strategy to attenuate the neuronal death against aluminum-induced neurodegeneration.”

Quercetin Improves Metabolic Syndrome Traits

Among the most recent papers on this powerful antioxidant is a review20 published in the March 2019 issue of Phytotherapy Research, which looked at nine randomized controlled trials investigating quercetin’s effect on metabolic syndrome.

Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of conditions (including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high triglyceride levels and fat accumulation around the waist) that raise your risk for Type 2 diabetes, heart disease and stroke.

While pooled findings found no effect on fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance or hemoglobin A1c levels, further subgroup analyses revealed quercetin supplementation “significantly reduced” fasting plasma glucose in studies lasting at least eight weeks and in which dosages of at least 500 milligrams (mg) per day were used.

In studies that included people over the age of 45, “significant” reductions in insulin were also found when using a dosage of 500 mg per day or more. An earlier study,21 published in 2011, looked at quercetin’s effects on certain traits of metabolic syndrome.

This study focused specifically atherosclerosis and inflammation in men with the APOE genotype 3/3, 3/4 and 4/4, and found quercetin significantly decreased waist circumference, postprandial systolic blood pressure, postprandial triacylglycerol, and increased HDL-cholesterol compared to placebo. Here, participants were given 150 mg of quercetin per day for eight weeks.

Research22 on obese rats published in 2008 also found that quercetin supplementation at doses of 2 mg per kilo or 10 mg/kg of body weight for 10 weeks improved systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol and free fatty acid levels. The 10 mg/kg dose also improved the animals’ inflammation status. As noted by the authors:

“In conclusion, both doses of quercetin improved dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperinsulinemia in obese Zucker rats, but only the high dose produced antiinflammatory effects in VAT together with a reduction in body weight gain.”

One of the first studies23 to demonstrate quercetin’s beneficial effects on blood pressure was published in 2007. As reported by the authors:

“Epidemiological studies report that quercetin … is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease and stroke … Men and women with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to test the efficacy of 730 mg quercetin/d for 28 d[ays] vs. placebo.

Blood pressure at enrollment was … 148 +/- 2/96 +/- 1 in stage 1 hypertensive subjects … Reductions in systolic (-7 +/- 2 mm Hg), diastolic (-5 +/- 2 mm Hg), and mean arterial pressures (-5 +/- 2 mm Hg) were observed in stage 1 hypertensive patients after quercetin treatment … These data are the first to our knowledge to show that quercetin supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.”

Similarly, a January 2020 systematic review24 of 17 studies concluded quercetin “significantly decreased” blood pressure in human subjects. Those who took it for eight weeks or more also had “significantly” improved high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides.


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Quercetin Improves Diabetes-Induced NAFLD

Other recent research25 published in the August 2019 issue of Phytotherapy Research concluded quercetin has a beneficial impact on NAFLD “by ameliorating inflammation, oxidative stress and lipid metabolism.”

Diabetes can play a role in NAFLD as well, showing just how influential insulin resistance is in the development of chronic diseases of all kinds. As explained in the abstract:

“Multiphase pathological processes involve in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM)‐induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the therapies are quite limited. In the present study, the hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanisms of quercetin in T2DM‐induced NAFLD were investigated …

The results revealed that quercetin alleviated serum transaminase levels and markedly reduced T2DM‐induced histological alterations of livers. Additionally, quercetin restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione content in livers.

Not only that, quercetin markedly attenuated T2DM‐induced production of interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and TNF‐α. Accompanied by the restoration of the increased serum total bile acid and the decreased liver total bile acid, quercetin could reduce lipid accumulation in the liver … These findings suggested that quercetin might be a potentially effective drug for the treatment of T2DM‐induced NAFLD.”

Quercetin Helps Modulate Gene Expression

According to research26 published in 2016, quercetin even has the ability to trigger tumor regression by interacting with your DNA and activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis (the programmed cell death of damaged cells).

Quercetin was found to induce cytotoxicity in leukemic cells, and the effect was dose-dependent. Limited cytotoxic effects were also found in breast cancer cells. Overall, quercetin increased the life span in cancer-ridden mice fivefold compared to untreated controls.

The authors attributed these effects to quercetin’s direct interaction with DNA and its activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, and suggested quercetin’s potential use as a cancer therapy adjunct deserves further exploration.

More recent research27 in the journal Molecules also highlights quercetin’s epigenetic influence and ability to:

  • Interact with cell-signaling pathways
  • Modulate gene expression
  • Influence the activity of transcription factors
  • Modulate microRNAs

MicroRNAs used to be considered “junk” DNA. Far from being useless, research has now revealed that “junk” DNA is actually microRNA and plays a crucial role in regulating genes that make the proteins that build your body.

The microRNA function as “on/off” switches for the genes. Depending on the microRNA input, a single gene can code for any of more than 200 protein products. Quercetin’s ability to module microRNA may also help explain its cytotoxic effects, and why it appears to improve cancer survival (at least in mice).

Quercetin Is a Powerful Antiviral

As mentioned, one of the most well-studied attributes of quercetin is its antiviral capacity, which have been attributed to three main mechanisms of action:

  1. Inhibiting the virus’ ability to infect cells
  2. Inhibiting replication of already infected cells
  3. Reducing infected cells’ resistance to treatment with antiviral medication

For example, research28 funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, published in 2007, found it lowers your risk of viral illness and boosts mental performance following extreme physical stress, which might otherwise undermine your immune function and render you more susceptible to infections.

Here, cyclists who received a daily dose of 1,000 mg of quercetin in combination with vitamin C (which enhances plasma quercetin levels29,30) and niacin (to improve absorption) for five weeks were significantly less likely to contract a viral illness after bicycling three hours a day for three consecutive days, compared to untreated controls. While 45% of the placebo group got sick, only 5% of the treatment group did.

In another study31 funded by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), published in 2008, animals treated with quercetin were challenged with a highly pathogenic H1N1 influenza virus. Again, the treatment group had significantly lower morbidity and mortality than the placebo group. A number of other studies have also confirmed quercetin’s effectiveness against a variety of viruses, including the following:

A 1985 study found quercetin inhibits infectivity and replication of herpes simplex virus type 1, polio-virus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus.32
A 2010 animal study found that quercetin inhibits both influenza A and B viruses. Two other important discoveries were made. Firstly, the viruses were unable to develop resistance to quercetin, and secondly, when used concomitant with antiviral drugs (amantadine or oseltamivir), the effect was significantly amplified — and it prevented drug-resistance from developing.33
A 2004 animal study investigating quercetin’s effect on influenza used a strain of the H3N2 virus. According to the authors:34

“During influenza virus infection, there is ‘oxidative stress.’ Because quercetin restored the concentrations of many antioxidants, it is proposed that it may be useful as a drug in protecting the lung from the deleterious effects of oxygen derived free radicals released during influenza virus infection.”

Another 2016 study found quercetin offered protection against influenza A virus H1N1 by modulating protein expression. More specifically, the regulation of heat shock proteins, fibronectin 1 and prohibitin was instrumental in reducing viral replication.35
A third study published in 2016 found quercetin inhibited a wide spectrum of influenza strains, including H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1. According to the authors, “This study indicates that quercetin showing inhibitory activity in the early stage of influenza infection provides a future therapeutic option to develop effective, safe and affordable natural products for the treatment and prophylaxis of [influenza A viruses] infections.”36
In 2014, researchers noted that quercetin appears to be “a promising treatment for the common cold,” caused by the rhinovirus, adding that “Quercetin has been shown to reduce viral internalization and replication in vitro, and viral load, lung inflammation and airways hyper-responsiveness in vivo.”37

By attenuating oxidative damage, it also lowers your risk of secondary bacterial infections, which is actually the primary cause of influenza-related deaths. Importantly, quercetin increases mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, which suggests part of its antiviral effects are due to enhanced mitochondrial antiviral signaling.

A 2016 animal study38 found quercetin inhibited mouse dengue virus and hepatitis virus. Other studies have confirmed quercetin’s power to inhibit both hepatitis B39 and C40 infection.
Most recently, a March 2020 study41 in the Microbial Pathogenesis journal found quercetin “provides comprehensive protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection,” both in vitro and in vivo, primarily by neutralizing pneumolysin (PLY),42 one of the toxins released from pneumococci that encourages S. pneumoniae infection to blossom in the first place. As reported by the authors in Microbial Pathogenesis:

“The results indicated that quercetin significantly reduced PLY-induced hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity via repressing the formation of oligomers.

In addition, treatment with quercetin can reduce PLY-mediated cell injury, improve the survival rate of mice infected with a lethal dose of S. pneumoniae, alleviate the pathological damage of lung tissue and inhibit the release of cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Considering the importance of these events in antimicrobial resistant S. pneumoniae pathogenesis, our results indicated that quercetin may be a novel potential drug candidate for the treatment of clinical pneumococcal infections.”

Quercetin Combats Inflammation and Boosts Immunity

Aside from its antiviral activity, quercetin is also known for boosting immunity and combating inflammation. As noted in a 2016 study43 in the journal Nutrients, mechanisms of action include (but is not limited to) the inhibition of:44

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production in macrophages. TNF-α is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation, secreted by activated macrophages, a type of immune cell that digests foreign substances, microbes and other harmful or damaged components

LPS-induced mRNA levels of TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-1α in glial cells, which results in “diminished apoptotic neuronal cell death”

The production of inflammation-producing enzymes

Calcium influx into the cell, which in turn inhibits:

Pro-inflammatory cytokine release

Histamine and serotonin release from intestinal mast cells release45

According to this paper, quercetin also stabilizes mast cells, has cytoprotective activity in the gastrointestinal tract, and “a direct regulatory effect on basic functional properties of immune cells,” which allows it to inhibit “a huge panoply of molecular targets in the micromolar concentration range, either by down-regulating or suppressing many inflammatory pathways and functions.”46

Quercetin May Be a Useful Supplement for Many

Considering its wide-ranging benefits, quercetin may be a useful supplement for many, either acutely or more long-term. It’s one of the supplements I recommend keeping in your medicine chest for times when you feel you’re “coming down” with something, be it the common cold or influenza.

If you’re prone to colds and flu, you could consider taking it for a couple of months before cold and flu season hits to boost your immune system. More long-term, it appears useful for those with metabolic syndrome, although it would be foolish to rely on any given supplement without also addressing more fundamental strategies such as diet and exercise.

As explained in my 2015 interview with Dr. Robert Lustig, sugar has been shown to be a causative factor in insulin resistance, which is a hallmark of metabolic syndrome and a risk factor for virtually all chronic disease.

If you have one or more of the conditions that make up metabolic syndrome, you’d be wise to limit your total sugar consumption to 15 grams per day. If you’re healthy, and want to stay that way, your daily sugar limit would be around 25 grams. You can learn more about this and related treatment strategies in “Vitamin D Can Significantly Lower Your Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.”

– Sources and References